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Chapter 8: The New Nation, 1786–1800.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: The New Nation, 1786–1800."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: The New Nation, 1786–1800

2 8.1: The Crisis Of The 1780s

3 A. Economic Crisis (1780s) 1. Inflation due to the war
a. Shortage of goods b. Devalue of currency; too much in circulation 2. Depression sets in a. US supplier of raw goods b. Trade deficit w/GB; silver leaving US c. Banks refused new loans 3. Confederation Congress unable to raise taxes; called on states to do so.

4 B. Annapolis Convention (It was in Maryland! 1786)
Meeting to call a meeting in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation Need for a stronger federal government was apparent Shay’s Rebellion (8/1786)

5 8.2: The New Constitution

6 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787)

7 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787)
Va Plan: a. Bicameral legislature b. Rep. based on pop. Who doesn’t like this plan? Senators elected by house House elected by popular vote

8 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787)
NJ Plan: All states represented equally Who doesn’t like this plan?

9 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787)
Great Compromise Equal rep. in Senate; elected by House House rep. based on population; elected by the people Regional interest: north – commerce and trade regulation south – slavery; 3/5 rule for representation Electoral College: delegates vote based on the number of representatives in Congress

10 Father of the Constitution
James Madison

11 B. Ratifying the New Constitution
Federalists Support the constitution Strong federal gov’t. Merchants, manufactures, large land owners Republic ideals can work in a big country, contrary to philosopher Montesquieu - Many interest groups = no one interest group in holding power

12 B. Ratifying the New Constitution
Anti-federalists Favored strong local/state govt; small fed. Gov’t. Think TJ and farmers Explicit interpretation of constitution Wanted Bill of Rights: i. James Madison ii. What did it stand for? TJ J. Madison

13 C. Ratifying the New Constitution

14 8.3: The First Administration

15 A. GW ( ) “man of the people?” Cabinet members?

16 B. Federal Judiciary Judiciary Act – 1789
establishes the Supreme Court and lower federal courts Higher courts function as appellate courts Increases from 6 to 9 judges in 1869

17 C. Hamilton’s Controversial Fiscal Program
Tariffs of 1789: Focus - raise revenue for the gov’t, not protect Amer. Merchants Hamilton’s Plan Assumption – feds repay states debt w/bonds Est. credit for fed. Gov’t abroad Bank of the United States Managed by Treasury Dept. TJ argues unconstitutional expansion of power Complete Success foreign investments and domestic capital increases


19 HBO Hamilton v. TJ clip

20 4. Hamilton vs. TJ re: the Constitution
Federalist Implied powers Anti-federalist Explicit powers


22 D. Foreign Policy (1793) & French Rev. and war Between France and GB
What should the US do? Feds: GB; trade Anti-feds: Fr; less dependent on GB Neutrality = Sell, sell, sell! &

23 E. U.S. and Natives 1. Intercourse Act NW Ordinance 1787
Regulated trade w/natives Lands negotiated solely through treaties NW Ordinance 1787 Est. rules of govt/statehood Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) NW territory; NA lose = Treaty of Greenville – NA lose NW lands to the US

24 F. Domestic Crisis (1794) Whiskey Rebellion Moral of story?
Excise tax? tax collectors harrassed/killed GW sends troops out to Pa; puts rebels down Moral of story? a. don’t mess w/Fed govt => Tested powers of new fed gov’t and Feds win

25 H. Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties
Jay’s Treaty GB to leave by 1796 Trade equally w/US Problem w/Treaty a. No compensation for lose of slaves b. Favored alliance w/GB over French who were allies House tries blocking treaty; wants to see correspondence re: treaty; GW says “No!” Precedent of “executive privilege” set by GW

26 H. Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties
3. Pinckney’s Treaty a. Southern parallel b. Ms. River open for US trade Collectively, LTC of treaties? Sovereignty West of Appalachian Mts. And ports from Atlantic to Miss. Valley open.

27 I. GW Farewell Address doc


29 8.4: Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans

30 A. The Rise of Political Parties Election of 1796
Federalists President Republicans V.P.

31 B. Adam’s X, Y, Z Affair Relations between US and France worsen thanks to US support of Jay’s Treaty; French confiscate US vessels and cargo. US Delegates turned away; French wanted bribes/loans Adams releases messages with names of French officials as X, Y, and Z. Adams stands his ground; builds a navy for defense “Quasi-war” between the two Adams approval rating soars

32 C. Alien & Sedition Acts (1798)
Limits free speech and liberties of foreigners Naturalization Act increases residence requirements from 5 to 14 years Sedition Act: fines/imprisonment for anyone convicted of speaking against gov’t To be used against Republicans Disagreement = treason

33 C. Alien & Sedition Acts (1798)
6. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions states have fundamental rights that the federal gov’t cannot abridge (diminish) States can nullify federal laws that they judge to be unconstitutional* Constitutional compact between fed and state gov’t

34 D. Election of 1800 Tied! Jefferson & Burr 12th Amendment
First party change: Federalist to Republican TJ AB

35 E. Democratic Political Culture
Growth of political participation Universal suffrage increasing?


37 Alexander Hamilton

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