3 A. Economic Crisis (1780s) 1. Inflation due to the war a. Shortage of goodsb. Devalue of currency; too much in circulation2. Depression sets ina. US supplier of raw goodsb. Trade deficit w/GB; silver leaving USc. Banks refused new loans3. Confederation Congress unable to raise taxes; called on states to do so.
4 B. Annapolis Convention (It was in Maryland! 1786) Meeting to call a meeting in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of ConfederationNeed for a stronger federal government was apparentShay’s Rebellion (8/1786)
7 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787) Va Plan:a. Bicameral legislatureb. Rep. based on pop.Who doesn’t like this plan?Senators elected byhouseHouse elected by popular vote
8 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787) NJ Plan:All states represented equallyWho doesn’t like this plan?
9 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787) Great CompromiseEqual rep. in Senate; elected by HouseHouse rep. based on population; elected by the peopleRegional interest: north – commerce and trade regulation south – slavery; 3/5 rule for representationElectoral College: delegates vote based on the number of representatives in Congress
11 B. Ratifying the New Constitution FederalistsSupport the constitutionStrong federal gov’t.Merchants, manufactures, large land ownersRepublic ideals can work in a big country, contrary to philosopher Montesquieu- Many interest groups = no one interest group in holding power
12 B. Ratifying the New Constitution Anti-federalistsFavored strong local/state govt; small fed. Gov’t.Think TJ and farmersExplicit interpretation of constitutionWanted Bill of Rights:i. James Madisonii. What did it stand for?TJJ. Madison
16 B. Federal Judiciary Judiciary Act – 1789 establishes the Supreme Court and lower federal courtsHigher courts function as appellate courtsIncreases from 6 to 9 judges in 1869
17 C. Hamilton’s Controversial Fiscal Program Tariffs of 1789:Focus - raise revenue for the gov’t, not protect Amer. MerchantsHamilton’s PlanAssumption –feds repay states debt w/bondsEst. credit for fed. Gov’t abroadBank of the United StatesManaged by Treasury Dept.TJ argues unconstitutional expansion of powerComplete Successforeign investments and domestic capital increases
22 D. Foreign Policy (1793) & French Rev. and war Between France and GB What should the US do?Feds: GB; tradeAnti-feds: Fr; less dependent on GBNeutrality = Sell, sell, sell!&
23 E. U.S. and Natives 1. Intercourse Act NW Ordinance 1787 Regulated trade w/nativesLands negotiated solely through treatiesNW Ordinance 1787Est. rules of govt/statehoodBattle of Fallen Timbers (1794)NW territory; NA lose =Treaty of Greenville –NA lose NW lands to the US
24 F. Domestic Crisis (1794) Whiskey Rebellion Moral of story? Excise tax?tax collectors harrassed/killedGW sends troops out to Pa; puts rebels downMoral of story?a. don’t mess w/Fed govt => Tested powers of newfed gov’t and Feds win
25 H. Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties Jay’s TreatyGB to leave by 1796Trade equally w/USProblem w/Treatya. No compensation for lose of slavesb. Favored alliance w/GB over French who were alliesHouse tries blocking treaty; wants to see correspondence re: treaty; GW says “No!”Precedent of “executive privilege” set by GW
26 H. Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties 3. Pinckney’s Treatya. Southernparallelb. Ms. River open for UStradeCollectively, LTC of treaties?Sovereignty West of Appalachian Mts. And ports from Atlantic to Miss. Valley open.
30 A. The Rise of Political Parties Election of 1796 Federalists PresidentRepublicans V.P.
31 B. Adam’s X, Y, Z AffairRelations between US and France worsen thanks to US support of Jay’s Treaty; French confiscate US vessels and cargo.US Delegates turned away; French wanted bribes/loansAdams releases messages with names of French officials as X, Y, and Z.Adams stands his ground; builds a navy for defense“Quasi-war” between the twoAdams approval rating soars
32 C. Alien & Sedition Acts (1798) Limits free speech and liberties of foreignersNaturalization Act increases residence requirements from 5 to 14 yearsSedition Act: fines/imprisonment for anyone convicted of speaking against gov’tTo be used against RepublicansDisagreement = treason
33 C. Alien & Sedition Acts (1798) 6. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutionsstates have fundamental rights that the federal gov’t cannot abridge (diminish)States can nullify federal laws that they judge to be unconstitutional*Constitutional compact between fed and state gov’t
34 D. Election of 1800 Tied! Jefferson & Burr 12th Amendment First party change: Federalist to RepublicanTJAB
35 E. Democratic Political Culture Growth of political participationUniversal suffrage increasing?