Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI) AT THE HIGH SCHOOL"— Presentation transcript:

Shawn Goodman, School Psychologist, Ithaca High School (607) Goodman/2009

2 The quality of a school as a learning community can be measured by how effectively it addresses the needs of struggling students. - Wright, 2005. Goodman/2009

3 Goals of Presentation Overview of using RTI at the High School level
Role of Guidance Counselors in making data-based decisions Map out resources, supports, and interventions at IHS Discuss how to align student problems with array of interventions Goodman/2009

4 The Real Goal: Learn More Acronyms!

5 Bonus: Solve this acronym: NCLTFBUHOSCKU

6 G. Reid Lyon of the National Institute of Child and Human Development
Learning disabilities have become a sociological sponge to wipe out the spills of general education. G. Reid Lyon of the National Institute of Child and Human Development Goodman/2009

7 Problems with Traditional Approaches
Little empirical support Too many false positives and negatives Inappropriate placements Focus on pathology: failure is prerequisite for interventions/support Emphasis on diagnosis and classification rather than intervention or remediation Reliance on confusing formulas Poor outcomes in Special Education Goodman/2009

8 What is Response to Intervention?
(RTI) Goodman/2009

9 RTI is a promising approach used to identify and remediate learning problems. It is a model and not a specific technique or program. Goodman/2009

10 Advantages of RTI: Allows for early intervention
Can be used with all students Provides a map of what works (and what doesn’t) for individual students Tracks student response over time (instead of at intake and release) Conforms to IDEIA The focus is on measurable and changeable aspects of the instructional environment Goodman/2009

11 Compliance with IDEIA May not require the use of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement for determining whether a child has a specific learning disability Must permit the use of a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention Goodman/2009

12 Compliance with Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004)
Redefines Learning Disabilities to include students with low ability (IQ) and academic delays Encourages use of RTI (“show that the student responds to scientific, research-based interventions…”) Discourages use of traditional methods associated with poor validity (discrepancy testing) Goodman/2009

13 Discrepancy Formulas SDL = CA (IQ/300 + .17) – 2.5
(Ysx IQ/ ) - AGL Goodman/2009

14 …Much to be gained by abandoning much of what we were doing (Ysseldyke et al., 1983).

15 How RTI works: Universal screening of all students (typically 3 times per year) Progress Monitoring Data (from screening and progress monitoring) used to make decisions about instruction, educational placement, etc. Goodman/2009

16 1. School-Wide Screening of all students:
Quick, cheap, repeatable testing of important skills areas or behaviors (such as Reading Fluency) Tells us who is “at risk” Examples include Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy (DIBELS), Iowa Test of Basic Skills, etc. Goodman/2009

17 2. Research-Based Progress Monitoring (For students identified as at-risk)
At-risk students are assessed weekly We will use Curriculum-Based assessments (not standardized): quick and relevant We will chart results to show progress Allows us to see when a student is not responding – leads to early intervention Goodman/2009

18 3. Data-based Decision Making
Schools develop a system to collect and record data on student performance (beyond what standardized tests show) Helps to analyze curricular, departmental, and administrative roles Establishes a model of constant improvement Goodman/2009

19 Oral Reading Fluency: Best Academic Indicator
Empirical studies have consistently demonstrated a strong, positive correlation among oral reading fluency, reading decoding, reading comprehension, and on-task behavior (McDowell & Keenan, 2001; Shinn, Good, Knutson, Tilly, & Collins, 1992) Goodman/2009

20 ABOUT READING PROBES Typically last one-minute
Are given at different grade levels Number of correctly read words is recorded and measured against benchmarks Administer consecutively lower grade level probes until student shows proficiency Gives very accurate indication of student’s real reading level (based on actual reading curriculum rather than standardized material) Goodman/2009

21 The following is an example of a common RTI Reading Probe (DIBELS):

22 DORF Progress Monitoring 15
Nicknames When I was born I was named after my grandfather. Most 11 people call me by my nickname instead of my real name, though. 23 I got my nickname when I was about six months old and starting 36 to eat solid foods. My mother would dip the spoon into my baby 49 food and start to bring a bite to my mouth. Before the spoon even 63 touched my lips, I would open my mouth very wide and make a 76 little noise My mother said to my father, “Look at him eat. Isn’t he 90 cute?” My father said, “He looks just like a baby robin in his nest 104 waiting for a juicy worm.” After that, my father started calling me Bird as a nickname. 120 he mostly kept it to himself, but then my grandfather began 131 calling me Bird. Finally, even my mother called me Bird. 141 Now I’m in the third grade and most of my classmates call 153 me Bird. Only my teacher uses my real name. I am so used to my 168 nickname that when my teacher calls on me I sometimes don’t 179 realize she is talking to me Whenever my parents really want my attention, they call me 195 by my real name. When they call me by my full name and even 209 use my middle name I know I better pay attention   Dynamic Measurement Group, Inc. Goodman/2009

23 Sample Program: represents one of many possibilities
How can IHS use RTI? Sample Program: represents one of many possibilities Goodman/2009

24 RTI Pilot: Cost: No cost. Materials: Downloaded from internet
Staff: School Psychologist, and one student intern (Ithaca College) Participants: 22 students Duration: 6 months for all 3 phases Goodman/2009

25 RTI Pilot: Overall Results (for the graph-phobic among us)
High level of cooperation, participation, and student satisfaction Accurately identified effective interventions for each student Students showed significant improvements in reading ability (from session to session and across all sessions) Goodman/2009

26 Protocol Existing student achievement scores were used to identify 22 students at-risk for learning disabilities in reading All 22 at-risk students received additional screening using DIBELS probes 6 students were identified with severe reading fluency deficits. Brief Experimental Analysis (BEA) and Extended Analysis were used with these 6 students to identify effective interventions and collect data on response to intervention. Goodman/2009

27 RTI Pilot: Case Studies

28 Age: 15 years, 7 months Grade: 8
Sample Case One J.S. Age: 15 years, 7 months Grade: 8 Goodman/2009

29 J.S. - History Repeated first grade Multiple suspensions and transfers
Multiple residential placements Longstanding family conflict (adopted, incarceration of siblings., illness, etc). Reading is frustrating and embarrassing Avoids reading and academic tasks Goodman/2009

30 J.S. - RTI RESULTS Assessment and Intervention given by School Psychologist for 30 minutes/session over 3 weeks Reading Fluency increased from 85 to 135 Words/Minute Errors decreased from 6/minute to 0 Six sessions of Intervention showed an average increase in Fluency of 8 Words/Minute per session Goodman/2009

31 J.R. – Brief Experimental Analysis

32 J.R. – Extended Analysis Goodman/2009

33 J.S. – RECOMMENDATIONS (presented to J.S. and Teacher)
Material in all subjects to be given at 5th grade level Weekly practice sessions (30 minutes) with a reading specialist to focus on skill acquisition Weekly practice sessions (30 minutes) with a reading specialist or tutor using Intervention. Reassess progress at one month intervals Goodman/2009

34 Age: 15 years; 7 months Grade: 10
Sample Case Two P.V. Age: 15 years; 7 months Grade: 10 Goodman/2009

35 P.V. – History History of school failure
Classified Emotionally Disturbed by Special Education Reads at 2nd Grade Level Reads very slowly, but makes no errors Increased anxiety when reading aloud Goodman/2009

36 P.V. - RTI RESULTS Intervention and assessment given by college intern for 30 minutes/session over 4 weeks Reading Fluency increased from 41 to 132 Words/Minute Error rate remained 0 Youth satisfaction high Goodman/2009

37 P.W. – Brief Experimental Analysis

38 P.W. – Extended Analysis Goodman/2009

39 P.V. - Recommendations Reading material at the 3rd grade level
Instruction/Intervention should include Motivation and Repeated Reading (Practice) Reduce distractions and interruptions Allow extra time, especially during long pauses. Do not finish words or sentences unless she asks for help. Assess anxiety which manifests as stuttering, fidgeting, and giving up. Goodman/2009

40 NEXT STEPS for IHS: Introduce RTI to IHS as a way to raise the quality of educational services available to all students Map all programs, services, resources, and supports currently available at school and in the community Develop a practical model of assessment and progress monitoring Align problems with appropriate interventions or supports Use RTI model to track and analyze program effectiveness Use implementation guides currently available Establish IHS (or Department-Specific) criteria for “at-risk” status Goodman/2009

41 Resources National Research Center on Learning Disabilities (NRCLD): Core Findings About Response to Intervention. University of Nebraska Omaha. Response to Intervention: The Latest News and Resources. Big Ideas in Beginning Reading (U of Oregon): What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept of Education): Intervention Central: CBM Warehouse: The Behavior Reporter (Behavior Report Card Generator): Gresham, F.M. (2004). Current status and future directions of school-based behavioral interventions. School Psychology Review, 33, Fuchs, L.S. (2003). Assessing intervention responiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, Mellard, D. (2005). Responsiveness to Intervention: Implementation in Schools. Goodman/2009

42 Resources Intervention Central. Jim Wright’s excellent website for RTI, and other interventions. Link to Syracuse School’s model using Intervention Teams. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy. School program using RTI. Goodman/2009

43 Process of Learning New Tasks
Acquisition: student learns to read new words Fluency: student practices accurately reading words Generalization: student reads words in different contexts Adaptation: student uses knowledge of new words to decipher words with other sound patterns - Wilbur, and Cushman, 2006 Goodman/2009

44 Five Possible Reasons for Academic Difficulty
Not motivated Not spent enough time practicing Not received enough help Not had to use the skill that way before Too hard - Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & McGrath, 2002 Goodman/2009

45 Academic Interventions:
Not motivated? Need practice? Need help? Too hard? Provide choices and incentives Drills, practice, and structured teaching Modeling, prompting, correcting, error corr. Modify materials to ensure instr. match Goodman/2009


Similar presentations

Ads by Google