Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

AAC Augmentative Alternative Communication

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "AAC Augmentative Alternative Communication"— Presentation transcript:

1 AAC Augmentative Alternative Communication
Cindy Nankee CESA #3 WATI Consultant

2 Agenda Share assessment experiences Showcase low, mid & high tech AAC
Communication Symbols Ideas for Using AAC Set Up Success Educational Opportunities Planning Communication Boards – the 80/20 rule Boardmaker

3 Session Objective Participants will increase knowledge of low to high tech AAC materials, devices and software. Participants will increase knowledge of AAC implementation in therapy, in the classroom, in the home and in the community. Participants will understand strategies for success in using a communication system Participants will increase knowledge of AAC resources. Participants will create materials using Boardmaker software

4 Name some ways we communicate
Communication boards Picture exchange system Voice output systems Gestures/signing Hair-pulling Body position Crying Eye contact Sounds Words Pointing Falling asleep Screaming Silence But for children who tend to communicate in “socially inappropriate” ways, we must find alternate (or augmentative!) ways to help them be effective communicators.

5 Augmentative/Alternative Communication AAC
*refers to the ways (other than speech) that are used to send a message from one person to another (ASHA, 2005) Examples Communication boards/books/picture symbols Voice output communication devices (VOCAs) now referred to as (SGD) Speech Generating Device Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Morse Code Eye Gaze

6 AAC is not…. “Giving up” on speech Only for those of a certain IQ
Only the job of the speech-language pathologist Just “HIGH TECH” devices A “one-time only” endeavor

7 AAC can be a vehicle for developing: expressive language receptive language literacy control over the environment communication initiation Quote over next few slides comes from Linda Burkhart’s book referenced on the slide Linda’s background is as a teacher Express wants and needs, make choices Receptive understand agenda, transitions, Literacy boards with books Environment Initiation greetings

8 Which leads to… increased academic success
increased participation in social situations increased self-esteem increased job opportunities And more…

9 Individuals Who Might Benefit from Visual Tools…
Pre-Readers Communication Delays/Disorders English Language Learners Attention Deficit Disorder Comprehension Problems Learning Disabilities Developmental Delays Traumatic Brain Injury Down Syndrome Autism Spectrum Disorder And many more…

10 Assessment ASNAT AT Checklist/AT Wheel STAGES ATLAS Evaluware
TASP Test of Aided-Communication Symbol Performance Communication Matrix Online Free/hard copy $8.00

11 Online Communication Matrix
The Communication Matrix is an assessment tool designed to pinpoint exactly how a child is currently communicating and to provide a framework for determining logical communication goals. This online version was designed especially for parents The parent version is designed to be "user friendly" Results on a one page Profile



14 Showcasing Low to High Tech AAC The WATI Continuum
Communication board or book Eye gaze frame Simple voice output device Voice output device with levels Voice output device with icon sequencing Voice output device with dynamic display Devices with speech synthesis that use typing

15 Communication Boards Should Include...
Vocabulary that reflects all 4 categories Wants & Needs Exchanging Information Social Interactions Social Etiquette Using the available symbols, could you communicate about an activity in all categories? Social closeness-social banter, comments, creates conversation, develops relations “What did you do last night”

16 Communication Boards                                                                   Next on the WATI Communication continuum

17 Communication book

18 Placement of Communication Boards
Mount on Wheel Chair On Desk/table On locker On Wall/ by bathroom/ sink Play areas Work area Kitchen area

19 Eye Gaze Frame

20 Simple Voice Output Device
AbleNet BIGmack Switch (800)

21 Voice Output Device with Levels
                                         Tech scan 32, multiple levels, scan, light prompt, real voice recording $ Go Talk, 4 levels,

22 Voice Output with Icon Sequencing
                                       Pathfinder, Prentke-Romich Company

23 Voice Output with Dynamic Display
                                           . Voice Output with Dynamic Display Mercury DV 4 and MT 4 E-Talk Palmtop

24 Tango by Blink Twice

25 Speaking Dynamically Pro
AAC Software with speech output Windows and Mac Create personalized dynamic, multilevel, talking boards $649.00

26 Type and Talk speech Synthesis

27 Tablet PC Speech Assistant

28 Terms/definitions VOCA – Voice Output Communication Device
SGD – Speech Generating Device

29 Companies handling dynamic display devices
DV4, MT4, MightyMo, DynaWrite Pathfinder, Vantage, Vanguard, Springboard Mercury, MiniMerc, Enkidu Tango E-talk

30 More on Communication Symbols

31 Like Again Show me Whole Past Fast Correct Short Tomorrow Word
Communication That’s crazy! Quiz, talk about boardmaker symbols

32 Communication Symbol Guideline
REAL OBJECTS TANGIBLE SYMBOLS TOBIs (true object-based icons) COLOR PHOTOS BLACK & WHITE PHOTOS LINE DRAWINGS PICTURE COMMUNICATION SYMBOLS TEXT W/ PICTURES TEXT & LETTERS Tangible symbols are whole objects, parts of object, texture that represents object, photos. Make sure the child can understand and use objects/photos, without a doubt BEFORE moving on to picture symbols. Failure of symbols due to mistake of not understanding objects. The point here is that many young children need to use actual objects PRIOR to being able to understand Boardmaker symbols. This session is focusing on what they can do with Boardmaker. Sign language is a separate strategy. Requires fine motor more than pointing to picture and requires partner fluent in sign.

33 Object Communication System
This product contains common objects along w/ picture symbols to assist in the transition between the two methods.

34 Tangible Symbols Tangible symbols are objects or pictures that stand for or represent something about which we need to communicate.

35 A T. O. B. I. can be a line drawing, photograph etc
A T.O.B.I. can be a line drawing, photograph etc. which is cut out in the actual shape of the item it represents

36 When Billy gets home from school…
Who will be home when he gets home from school/daycare Or who will be coming to pick him up.

37 Line Symbols

38 Picture Communication Symbols

39 Text with Pictures

40 Communication Board with words/letters/numbers

41 Ideas for Using AAC In Therapy In the Classroom In the Home
In the Community Behavior Regulation

42 Why Use Visual Tools and Strategies…
Hodgdon, 2002 Give students information about their activities Prepare students for what will or will not happen Reduce the anxiety that comes from the unexpected, especially during transition times Help students understand the concept of “finished” Provide the structure for appropriate behavior and participation Support communication and conversation

43 AAC in Therapy Schedules and Calendars Tools to Give Information
Tools to Make Choices and Requests Tools for Protesting and Rejecting Tools for Behavior Regulation

44 Picture Schedules What is it? A visual representation of a span of time or of a specific activity. When? They can be used to help cue a child as to what comes next (e.g., put on snow pants, put on boots, put on coat, put on mittens) How? Mount picture symbols or labeled photos on magnetic board, tag board with Velcro, or tape and have the board with you during that activity. Model use of it so the child can eventually perform the task independently.



47 Tools to Give Information
“Behavior problems emerge because what the student is expecting and what is really happening are not the same.” Linda Hodgdon, 2002 Calming down board Rule Cards (“When I get to the gym, I sit on the red line.”) International NO Lightning Bolt Activity Termination Symbols Social stories w/ or without picture supports Card to hold (WAIT) Show calming down board, lightning bolts, activity termination symbols, social stories (made w/ Writing W/ Symbols), wait card, international NO, etc. from inside your Autism WATi KIT

48 Making Choices and Requests Hodgdon, 2002
*Student may need to LEARN what it means to make a choice *Start with highly desirable choices *Choices often motivate the student to communicate *Offer immediate reinforcement for their choice *Choice-making can be practiced multiple times per day *Adults can structure the choices provided

49 What to choose, what to choose…
Which snack to eat Which toy to play with Which seat to sit in Which person to walk with Which cereal to buy Which washcloth to use Which job to do Which CD to listen to Which book to read

50 Tools for protesting or rejecting
                               "All Done“ Card

51 Behavior Regulation Tools

52                                                 "Wait" Card

53 Teaching NO

54                                   "First-Then" Card

55 AAC in the Classroom Same as in Therapy Vocabulary Literacy Boards
Literacy Activities to expand language Customize books You don’t have to talk before you read Reading comprehension increases if you are able to talk about it

56 Vocabulary

57 Literacy Boards What is it? A single page containing pictures/words specifically relating to a particular story Why? Used to identify key characters of the story, along with messages like “turn the page,” “more” or other story-specific comments When? Use before, during, and/or after a story to help lead discussion and help the child fully understand the vocabulary and concepts within the story How? Model use by pointing to characters, comments as you talk/read about them


59 Snack Time Simple snack time Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel

60 Snack Time Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel
More complex snack Does it meet 4 categories?Wants and needs/Exchanging Information/Social closeness/social etiquette Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel

61 School to home note Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel

62 Software to expand language skills
Laurette Stages choice Pixwriter

63 AAC in the Home Same as Therapy and classroom
Create boards for playing games Follow a recipe AAC systems with infrared can be used to control anything that can be operated with a remote Channel surf the TV Purchase a infrared mini controller and automate small appliances (lights, fans, computer, robotic vacuum) Control infrared toys & switch adapted toys


65 Playdough recipe with Pixwriter

66 AAC in the Community Same as Therapy/Classroom/Home
Make choices at the restaurant/library/ Make comments about: sporting events/movies/concerts/ plays/festivals/fashions Create shopping lists

67 communication/the academic activity/language
?? Remember ?? The focus is not on the technology (low or high) rather, it is on communication, the academic activity and language. Remember the focus is not on the technology rather, it is on communication/the academic activity/language ?? Remember

68 The following section from CCE Creating Communication Environments
Set Up Success The following section from CCE Creating Communication Environments Communication Activity Environment Partner Activities that focus on communication Environment that’s conducive to communication by the child Partner that knows how to prompt, model, elicit language, pause

69 Arrange the Environment to Increase the Likelihood of Communication
Common Strategies…. Use motivating materials and activities Materials should be in view but not accessible Student should need assistance with some materials Provide small or inadequate amounts of materials Sabotage Provide something the student doesn’t like/want Use communication boards/devices & visual tools

70 Increase Communication by being a good communication Partner
Accept and respond to ANY communication attempt Provide descriptive feedback instead of praise (“You wanted paint. Here’s more paint.”) Be silent when appropriate Be aware of use of figurative language (“take your seat” vs. “sit”) Use a prompt hierarchy

71 Prompt Hierarchy Environmental Cue Open Question
PAUSE Open Question Prompt OR Request for Communication Full Model Incorporate descriptive feedback into each step

72 Prompt Hierarchy Step #1 Environmental Cue
Set up the environment to signal to the student that an activity is about to begin. Ringing bell Lining up at the door Art materials prepared but out of reach Desired items visible but inaccessible Cutting the pizza, e.g. After student responds, provide Descriptive Feedback

73 Prompt Hierarchy--Pausing Pause after every step
Focus your attention on the student (expect communication!) A N PAUSE D After student responds, provide Descriptive Feedback

74 Prompt Hierarchy Step #2 Open Question
If the student does not respond to the pause by making a response: Ask a WHAT, WHY, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, OR HOW Question “What do you want?” “Whose turn is it?” “Where does that go?” AND then…...PAUSE After student responds, provide Descriptive Feedback

75 Prompt Hierarchy Step #3 Prompt or Request Communication
Provide a prompt to students Choices, carrier phrase, initial sound, visual cue OR Request Communication “Tell me what you need.” “Tell me what goes next.” AND then……PAUSE After student responds, provide Descriptive Feedback

76 Prompt Hierarchy Step # 4 Full Model
Provide a full model for student Use student’s AAC device Use developmentally appropriate model AND then…...PAUSE After student responds, provide Descriptive Feedback

77 PAUSE In other words…PAUSE!
Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause! In other words…PAUSE!

78 Prompt Hierarchy—WHY? Gives student the necessary time to process information and to formulate a message to communicate Provides a structure for adults that encourages communication Can be customized for individual students Organized least to most

79 CCE video

80 Educational Opportunities
Visual Strategies – Susan Stokes CESA /20 CESA 9 2/26/07 CCE (Creating Communication Environments) WATI Consultants Get A Grip On Communication Cesa #2- 1/26 and 4/24 DynaVox – PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) Green Bay 1/4 & 5; Milwaukee 4/23 &24

81 Creating a Communication Environment (CCE)
Activity Environment Partner CCE is for staff struggling with the implementation of AAC systems including language boards and low tech to high tech devices, across the school environment.

82 Creating a Communication Environment (CCE)
A four part sequential intervention A team is required (teacher, SLP, Para, OT, PT, Parent) CESA #2 Milton Wisconsin $600. per 3 person team, $50. per additional team member Jill Gierach, CESA #2 WATI consultant Shelly Weingarten, CESA #1 WATI consultant training link

83 Get A Grip on Communication
2 part training – assessment & programming Severe and profound multiple disabilities Special educators, SLP’s, OT’s, Paraprofessionals, Parents $225 College credit registration forms

84 DynaVox Trainings
DynaVox Local Trainings Introductory and Advanced Trainings Online Programming Tutorials Video and slide presentations DynaVox Virtual Classroom an online learning environment that features a live instructor

85 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS):
PECS allow the child to spontaneously initiate a communicative interaction by actually exchanging, or giving a visual representation system to another person. By making a physical exchange with another person, the child develops a concrete understanding that communication is an actual exchange of information between two or more people The PECS program is composed of various phases or levels, starting with simple, concrete communicative exchanges and moving to more abstract communication. Visual representation systems which can be used: miniature objects, T.O.B.I.s, photos, real drawings, line drawings, written words.

86 Visual Resources for Enhancing Communication from the Indiana Resource Center for Autism *Attainment Company, Verona, WI *Autism Resource Network *Don Johnston Company, Volo, IL *Imaginart Communication Products, Bisbee, AZ *IntelliTools, Inc., Novato, CA *Mayer-Johnson Company, Solana Beach, CA *Pyramid Educational Consultants I nc., Newark, DE *Silver Lining Multimedia, Inc., Poughkeepsie, NY *Slater Software, Inc, Guffey, CO

87 Creating Communication Boards
Planning Assessment & Design Boardmaker Speaking Dynamically Pro PixWriter Microsoft Word Table

88 80/20 Rule Augmentative Alternative Communication is 80% planning and 20% programming

89 Assessment Evaluware TASP Computerized assessment
Assesses size/spacing/visual preferences/auditory preferences TASP Hard copy assessment An easy-to-use tool for assessing symbolic skills, Design communication boards Help select Aug Communication device Set appropriate AAC goals Serves as a tool to benchmark progress in aided communication performance.

90 Designing Communication Boards
Physical considerations: Size of symbols Spacing between symbols Physical access to all locations of board Landscape vs. Portrait orientation

91 Designing Communication Boards
Visual considerations: Color vs. black/white Color background Size & spacing

92 Designing Communication Boards
Language/Cognitive Considerations: Type of message (single word vs. phrase) Type of symbol (Photos, line drawings) Amount of vocabulary to be displayed at a time Organization Brandenburg, S., & Vanderheiden, g.C. (1988) The Vocally Impaired: Clinical Practice and Research pp

93 Arrangements for Communication Displays
Activity-Based Category-Based Grammatically Correct-Based Alphabet and Word Based

94 Activity-Based Displays
For use with a specific activity (block play, cooking, office help) May necessitate repeating of symbols across multiple displays Should include comments and social etiquette messages General left-to-right progression (person-action-attribute-object-location) Should include problem-solving messages

95 Category-Based Displays
Groupings are based on categories with vocabulary items arranged according to familiar categories May include a main board (e.g., I want to tell you a joke) with branching subtopic messages Requires knowledge of categorization and the hierarchy of language Difficult to express relational concepts, or complex thoughts, and difficult to use appropriate syntax

96 Grammatically-Correct Displays
Groupings are based upon some knowledge of grammar Provide a way to generate more complex thoughts, to develop linguistic and literacy skills Includes semantic arrangements, grammatical arrangements, or a modified Fitzgerald Key Makes it possible for communication partners to model language (augmented input/aided language stimulation

97 Alphabet or Word- based Displays
Groupings are based on the alphabet May include combination word-symbol messages Effective use depends on the student’s prior knowledge, future goals, and the message selection techniques being used

98 Color Coding will allow user and facilitator to locate symbols more easily
Verbs/descriptors/nouns/prepositions Tip of the month

99 Prepositions……….Green Nouns…………………..Yellow Miscellaneous……Orange
Goosens’ Crain & Elder Color Coding System Communication Displays for Engineered Preschool Environments (1994) Verbs…………………..Pink Descriptors………..Blue Prepositions……….Green Nouns…………………..Yellow Miscellaneous……Orange “WH” words, exclamations, negations, etc.

100 Planning is Ongoing Continue to Adjust Variables
Expand vocabulary Increase size & array of symbols Increase settings: home/community/other people/times in a day Differ communication: requests/labeling/commenting/questions Multi symbol utterances Accessible/portable Bridge up/down hierarchy

101 Summary of Ideas Picture supported story/newsletter Calendars
Literacy board Weather Board Snack placemats Games (bingo) Certificates Greeting Cards Calendars Schedules Vocabulary Worksheets/Quizzes (matching/fill in) Math/Reading/ Science/SS Social Stories Community

102 Category Worksheet Kristin Whitfield DynaVox educational specialist

103 Boardmaker Software Picture communication symbols used to create communication boards, device overlays, worksheets, picture schedules Teacher Tool $299.00

104 Boardmaker Plus Software
This is Boardmaker plus voice Create interactive Activities Minus SDP bells and whistles Student/classroom Tool $399.00 Minus real speak, word prediction, abbreviation expansion

105 Boardmaker with Speaking Dynamically Pro Software
SDP is a speech output program Use to create dynamic, talking, multilevel communication boards Teacher Tool Individual Student Tool $649.00

106 Boardmaker Tutorial

107 Word Table with ClipArt

108 4000 symbols include emotions, animals, verbs, nouns, computer technology, and many more. Imagine Symbols are available for download for non-commercial use.

109 Created in Word with Free Image Symbols

110 This is a great site for non-readers.  Everything is in symbols.  Stories, news, recipes, personal care, and much more.   There is even a newsletter that is similar to News 2 You.....but it's free.   

111 Resources on symbol use Symbols for literacy Products
Webwide – see websites with symbol support

112 References American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website: Burkhart, L. 1993, Total Augmentative Communication in the Early Childhood Classroom, p.38 Binger, C. & Kent-Walsh, J. (2005). Evidence-Based Language Supports for Children Using AAC: Increasing Expressive Communication. Closing the Gap conference, Oct. 2005, Minneapolis, MN. Casey, K. & Kornfeld S. (2004). Developing language-rich light tech AAC systems for young children. Closing the Gap, October/November 2004, 23 (4). CESA 4 & 5 Cumley, J. and Pallaske, M., CESA 1 & 2 Weingarten, M. and Gierach, J., Creating Communication Environments training, 2005 DynaVox educational specialist Whitfield, K., Planning for and supporting Meaningful Participation and Learning for children and Adults Using AAC

113 References Hodgdon, L., Visual Strategies For Improving Communication: Solving Behavior Problems in Autism: Improving Communication with Visual Strategies, QuirkRoberts Publishing, P.O. Box 71 Troy, MI Hodgdon, L., Solving Behavior Problems in Autism: Improving Communication with Visual Strategies, QuirkRoberts Publishing, P.O. Box 71 Troy, MI Karlan, George. Environmental Communication Teaching Training. Field-Initiated Research Grant Award No. H023C9005 from the Office of Special Education, U.S. Department of Education. Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University. Quill, Kathleen, Do-Watch-Listen-Say, Paul H. Brookes Publishing, 2000 Raising a Reader, Raising a Writer: How Parents Can Help. Washington DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) #530 Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers, Child Care & Family Providers, U.S. Department of Education

Download ppt "AAC Augmentative Alternative Communication"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google