3 - Life on the Mississippi STEAMBOAT PILOTWhen I was a boy, there was but one permanent ambition among my comrades in our village on the west bank of the Mississippi River. That was, to be a steamboatman. We had transient ambitions of other sorts, but they were only transient. When a circus came and went, it left us all burning to become clowns; the first negro minstrel show that came to our section left us all suffering to try that kind of life; now and then we had a hope that if we lived and were good, God would permit us to be pirates. These ambitions faded out, each in its turn; but the ambition to be a steamboatman always remained.- Life on the Mississippi
4 Influence of Nationalism on the Nation’s Courts Fulton and Livingston given charter from NY legislature river boat trade. They had exclusive rights to operate steamboats on NY’s river. - Monopoly• They granted license to others• Ogden got NY to NJ• Gibbons came along doing the same• Ogden sues Gibbons saying Gibbons is illegal• Gibbons vs. Ogden:o Supreme Court declares Ogden wrong – only federal gov’t regulate interstate trade (cell phones)o Again national over statealso favors competition over monopoly
5 Influence of Nationalism on the Nation’s Courts McCulloch vs. Md• Md tried to run National Bank of US out of business by taxing it• J. Marshall and SC says states can’t tax only federal can (power to tax is power to destroy) even within their own stateIf Marshall allowed this then states would be overturning laws passed by Congress• BUS is constitutional
6 Influence of Nationalism on the Nation’s Courts Fletcher v PeckGeorgia law violated individuals’ rights to enter a contractEarlier Georgia state congress had granted an sweetheart of a real estate contract to “friends” regarding western lands. Those Congressmen took bribes in exchange for those frontier lands.This “Yazoo grant” infuriated voters (propertied white males) in Ga. Election and most of those particular state Congressmen not re-electedNew state Congress men promptly took back that Yazoo land grant.Those real estate friends who had gotten land under the original Yazoo grant sued the state of Ga. Said you can’t take back our contract rights. A contract is a contract.J. Marshall said a contract was a contract and that included state contracts. The next legislature couldn’t take that contract away.States beholden to the Constitution and its laws too!
7 Influence of Nationalism on the Nation’s Courts Dartmouth College v. WoodwardState of NH cannot revise the original charter of the college given in colonial times by the state itself.Charter is a contract and Consitution does not allow states to interfer with contracts.So consider: How did the SC’s rulings strenghthen the federal gov’ts control over the economy?How did the SC limit the power of the states?In what ways did the SC boost Federal power?How
8 Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Nationalism - the belief that national concerns should be placed ahead of regional concersn or the interests of other countriesUnder Monroe the Secretary of State John Quincy Adams secures:1. establishes security of the nation2. expands the nation’s territory
9 Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Nationalism - the belief that national concerns should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries1.Rush Bagot Treaty reduces military ships of Grt Britain on the Grt Lakeseventually border b/w 2 countries is demilitarized
10 Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Nationalism - the belief that national concerns should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries2.Convention of fixed the northern border of the US at 49th parallellater reaches compromose w/GB - joint occupation of Oregon for 10 years49th parallel
11 Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy Nationalism - the belief that national concerns should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries3.Adams- Onis Treaty Spain, too weak to protect New World interests, ceded Florida to USalso gives up any claim to Oregon
12 Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy 4. Monroe DoctrineSp and Portugal defeat Napoleaon in Tried to regain LA territories.Russia - in Alaska begins to establish trading posts in California territoriesUS must do something!Russian incursion poses threat to US profitable trade with China!Many Americans want Cuba and northern MexicoWhat will James Monroe do?
13 Monroe Doctrinewarns all outside powers not to interfere w/ affairs in the Western Hemispheredo not try to estb colonies heredo not try to overthrow newly created independent republics in this hemisphereif you try to do this we will consider it “dangerous to our peace and safety”We promise to stay out of European affairs and they must promise not to interfere with existing status quo in Western Hemispherea.k.a. we will stay out of your backyard if you stay out of ours
15 Nationalism Pushes America West Settlers busy moving into NW Territory: Ohio - Indiana - Illinois - Wisconsin _ Michigan
16 Nationalism Pushes America West Why go west?1. escape debts2. escape the law3. searching for economic gain (land is cheap!)4. social gains; easy to change status/occupations
17 Nationalism Pushes America West What is the legislation on becoming a state?NW Ordinance of 1787
18 Nationalism Pushes America West 1819 Missiouri reaches pop. of 60,000 and applies for statehoodTROUBLE!up until then had 10 free and 10 slave statesNOW WHAT?Illinois admitted as free stateAlabama is admitted as slave state NOW WHAT!
19 Nationalism Pushes America West 1820 Missiouri’s status is critical to the balance of power b/t free and slave states (in Congress)...there is talk of civil war (clue: real civil war begins 1860)Henry Clay to the rescue with a compromise
20 Nationalism Pushes America West Maine admitted free/ Missouri admitted slavethe rest of the Louisiana Territory was split into 2 spheres of interest (slave and free)dividing linenorth of this is freesouth of this is slave