2 Topics How can what you already know help you (or trip you up)? Why do I need APA?How do I get started?TemplateGuides you can trustAre there any shortcuts?What about these fine points?How do I cite the sources for this class?Recommended resources
3 1. Quote words from source Example 1: whole sentence“APA style was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing” (Basics, n.d.).Example 2: selected wordsMany editors and reviewers “have extremely low tolerance for APA errors” (Onwuegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Freis, 2010).However you take notes, be sure to distinguish between sources words and your ownTip: you can select words as long as you don’t distort the meaningsSelect, but stay true to author’s intent “The director hoped to create “…an epic on a an epic on a grand scale; the grand scale….” result is an epic failure.”
4 1. Quote marks or block? Example 3: 40 words or more This is how a block quotation looks: Format each quotation with 40 or more words as a block. Begin each block quotation on a new line. Indent the quotation .5 inch from the left margin. With this formatting, you do not need enclosing quotation marks. Place final punctuation before the in-text citation. (Munzenmaier, 2013)Using a block quotation is much like yielding the floor to another speaker. If you must use a long quotation, provide an introduction that shows how it relates to your own thinking.Quotation marks are redundant
5 2. Credit ideasParaphrase After studying hundreds of definitions of procrastination, Steel (2013) concluded that all had one idea in common: people knew they would pay a price for delay, but still chose to put things off.To cite an idea that you put into your own words • Use an in-text citation• Omit quotation marks
6 2. Credit ideas Resources to help you paraphrase UWisc HandbookIndiana plagiarism tutorial and self-test:Rule of thumb: neither the wording nor the structure of the original should be recognizable in your paraphrase. Tips: look away; start at a different place; tie to your point
7 3. Credit twice in-text citation (ch. 6) reference entry (ch. 7) Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5),In-text shows where you used information from sources in your paper;Reference list entries allow readers to locate the sourceHow can you tell this in-text citation goes with this reference list entry?Is the text excerpt a quotation or a paraphrase?
8 3. No citation = plagiarism AMBROSE"Up, up, up…”"Up, up, up….”CHILDERSReal-life case: well-known historian Stephen Ambrose plagiarized Wings of Morning by Thomas Childers. That led to examination of Ambrose’s other works, and several authors found multiple cases of plagiarism, dating back to his college papers. The last years of his life were shadowed by this (although it didn’t hurt his sales). David Plotz of Slate called Ambrose a “vampire”:The ensuing descriptions follow a similar structure and share many other words in common.
9 3. Can you recognize source? "Up, up, up, groping through the clouds for what seemed like an eternity. ... No amount of practice could have prepared them for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds all over the sky."—Thomas Childers, Wings of Morning, p. 83"Up, up, up he went, until he got above the clouds. No amount of practice could have prepared the pilot and crew for what they encountered— B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds over here, over there, everywhere."—Stephen Ambrose, The Wild Blue, p. 164“The Times's David Kirkpatrick then discovered that Ambrose, in writing The Wild Blue, had taken not only the passages from Childers's Wings of Morning for which he had apologized, but also five passages from two other books: The Army Air Forces in World War II, by Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, and The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon, by Michael S. Sherry.”Which is why David Plotz says “Stephen Ambrose is a vampire.”“The Good, the Bad, and the Phony”Childers accepted the apology, but removed Ambrose’s book from his syllabus (noting wryly that Ambrose probably wouldn’t miss the sales)
10 4. Keep in-text citations short Show where you used a source in your paperHave three basic elementsAuthor(s) last nameYearPage # (for direct quotation if available)Researcher-focusedBurns (2003) has stated that leadership begins “where change begins” (p. 140).Chronology-focusedIn 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he described how leadership studies could provide solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership.Idea-focusedThe innovator’s approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).The most common form is Author Last Name, Date. However, as long as all elements are there, you can use other formats as well.
11 4. Keep in-text citations short “No amount of practice could have prepared [the pilot and crew] for what they encountered. B-24s, glittering like mica, were popping up out of the clouds” (Childers, 1995, p. 83) over here, over there, everywhere.ReferencesChilders, T. (1995). Wings of morning. New York: Perseus.…In each case, I footnoted the passage in question, but failed to put some words and sentences into quotation marks. I am sorry and will make relevant changes in all future editions.”—Stephen AmbroseAmbrose’sapologyThis is all it would have taken for Ambrose to avoid plagiarism.ology fromparentheticalreference entry
12 4. Keep in-text citations short Basic elementsAuthor(s) last nameYearPage # (for direct quotation if available)Example 1: source with no hard page numbers Procrastinators put things off even though they “expect to be worse-off for the delay” (Steel, 2013).Example 2: The Procrastination Equation “Procrastination is an irrational delay, whereby we voluntarily put off tasks until later despite expecting to be worse off for the delay” (Steel, 2010, p. 53).
13 4. Keep in-text citations short Basic elementsAuthor(s) last nameYearPage # (for direct quotation if available)Example 1: source with no hard page numbers Procrastinators put things off even though they “expect to be worse-off for the delay” (Steel, 2013).Example 2: The Procrastination Equation “Procrastination is an irrational delay, whereby we voluntarily put off tasks until later despite expecting to be worse off for the delay” (Steel, 2010, p. 53).
14 4. Keep in-text citations short Example 3: no URL Procrastinators put things off even though they “expect to be worse-off for the delay” (Steel, 2013).URLs go in the reference entry Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination/
15 4. Keep in-text citations short Example 4: give just enough to match to references People in the Northwest tend to procrastinate more than Americans living in other parts of the country (“Psychology,” 2010).Complete title in reference entry Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute [interview with Joseph Ferrari]. (2010, April 5). Retrieved fromGive just enough of the title in in-text citation to avoid any possible confusion. For example, if another title begins with Psychology, use “Psychology of procrastination.”
16 5. Give complete location info Handbook/DocAPA.html
17 5. Location—creator’s view Four basic elements of a reference list entry:AuthorDateTitleLocation (retrieval information)WHOWho created this reference?WHENWhen was it created?WHATWhat is this reference called?WHEREWhere can this reference be found?Copy URL
18 5. Location—creator’s view Four building blocks for any format:1. WHOFerrari, J. (2005, December 7). There’s always tomorrow [live chat with E. Hoover]. Transcript available at Chronicle of Higher Education Web site: /12/procrastination/188.8.131.52. WHEN3. WHATCopy URL4.4. WHERE
19 5. Location—creator’s view Author. (Date). Retrieval information.BookPerrin, R. (2006). Pocket guide to APA style. New York: Houghton Mifflin.JournalCuddy, C. M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopaedic Nursing, 21(5),Web articleAmerican Psychological Association (APA) documentation. (2009). Retrieved from University of Wisconsin Madison Writing Center website: /American_Psychological_Association_(APA) _Documentation_M.pdfThe format varies by type of source, but it’s always Author. (Date). Retrieval information.
20 5. Location—creator’s view Basic guideline: provide enough information to make it easy to find the sourceSee“The Generic Reference”:“Missing Pieces”: blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/05 /missing-pieces.html“I Can’t Find….”: /i-cant-find-the-example-reference-i-need.htmlLocation information varies by source: generally you’ll only need a few types of entriesUWIsc:Copy URL
21 5. Location: Consumer’s view We already know about Ferrari; here are five more authors who have explored the effects of procrastination. If you check to the reference list, you’ll get all the information you—or a librarian—needs to locate them. If Drake doesn’t have them, you can request them through interlibrary loan.Where can I find good sources?
22 5. Location: Consumer’s view ReferencesSpecter, M., & Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Time orientations of procrastinators: Focusing on the past, present, or future? Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5),ReferencesDivaDee. (2010, July 1). Why I put things off. Message posted to /archives/july10Procrastination. (2010, January 17). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from /wiki/ProcrastinationShould you use Wikipedia? For a preview; just be sure you go to the original source—Wikipedia should not be in your reference listWhich source is the most credible?
23 5. Location: Consumer’s view Should you use Wikipedia? For a preview; just be sure you go to the original source—Wikipedia should not be in your reference listWhat should you cite instead of Wikipedia?
24 6. Alphabetize reference list A well-written paper creates a new organization.What is procrastination?Steel (2008) has described all procrastinators as trading “short-term gain for long-term pain.” Ferrari (2000) classified those who habitually delay into three categories: arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators. While most people occasionally put things off, some are chronic procrastinators whose delays disrupt their lives: “Remember, 80% of us procrastinate, but 20% are procrastinators” (Ferrari, 2005).Both Steel (2008) and Ferrari (2000, 2005) emphasized the negative. However, Chu and Choi (2005) found strategic delay couldThe same source may be cited several different places within the paper.New paragraph = new in-text citation.How do reference lists and in-text citations work together.
25 6. and hang your indentsAn alphabetized reference list makes it easy to find complete location information for each in-text citation.ReferencesChu, A. H., & Choi, J. N. (2005, June 1). Rethinking procrastination: Positive effects of “active” procrastination on attitudes and performance. Journal of Social Psychology.Ferrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5),Ferrari, J. (2005, December 7). There’s always tomorrow [live chat with E. Hoover]. Transcript available at Chronicle of Higher Education website: /colloquy/2005/12/procrastination/Steel, P. (2007a). Definition of procrastination. Retrieved from Procrastination Central Web site:Steel, P. (2007b). Theories of procrastination. Retrieved from Procrastination Central Web site:Create a hanging indent by pressing Control-T, using the ruler, or selecting “hanging indent” in the Format Paragraph dialog box
26 7. Follow author-date system. Example 1: Begin with author’s last name Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination/Example 2: If no author, begin with title Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute [interview with Joseph Ferrari]. (2010, April 5). Retrieved fromYou just need to be able to match the citation with the reference list
27 8. Follow author-date system. Example 3: In the reference list, the full date the second element. For websites, use date of last edit. Steel, P. (2013.) The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from /the-definition-of-procrastination/Example 4: If no author, begin with title and full date Psychology of procrastination: Why people put off important tasks until the last minute. (2010, April 5). Retrieved fromYou just need to be able to match the citation with the reference listExample 5: If no date, use n.d. Procrastination self-test. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2013, from Shamus University Counseling website:
28 8. Follow author-date system. Example 6: In text, place year after first element (Steel, 2013)Example 7: If no author, begin with title (“Psychology,” 2010)Example 8: If no date, use n.d. (“Procrastination,” n.d.)You just need to be able to match the citation with the reference listCommon mistake: TMI in in-text citation • Year only (no month or day)• No URLs
29 9. Block quotes ≥ 40 wordsWrite a sentence that puts the quotation in context.Start quotations of 40 words or more on a new line, indented .5 inchPlace final punctuation before in-text citationMost experts believe that procrastination always has negative consequences. HoweverChu and Choi (2005) say that not all procrastinators are lazy and undisciplined. While passive procrastinators are more stressed and less efficient, active procrastinators can adapt quickly to fast-changing environments. They are energized by pressure and “if something comes up, they will switch gears and engage in new tasks they perceive as more urgent.” The key is that active procrastinators use delay as a conscious strategy. (Bellum, 2012)
30 10. When to get personalEvery source cited in-text needs to be in your reference list except personal communications • letters • s • voice mail • texts • interviewsanything your readers cannot accessCite in-text only • Give source’s first initial and last name, personal communication, Month, Day, Year• Example: (T. Westbrook, personal communication, February 2, 2013)
31 10. When to get personalKey question: is it retrievable?
32 Quick QuizT F When citing someone’s ideas, you should do the in-text citation just as you would for a direct quotation.T F When citing someone’s ideas in your own words, do not use quotation marks.Another assumption is that your readers will want access to your sources. Maybe they want to know more about your topic. Perhaps they want to verify that what you quoted is accurate. Perhaps they want to write a rebuttal (e.g. Pape’s article on the strategic logic of suicide terrorism).T F Quotations of 40 word or more are formatted differently than short quotations.
33 Quick QuizEvery source that you cite in your paper must appear in your reference list except ____________________.personal communicationsThe main question to ask yourself when deciding how to cite a class handout is ___________________.Another assumption is that your readers will want access to your sources. Maybe they want to know more about your topic. Perhaps they want to verify that what you quoted is accurate. Perhaps they want to write a rebuttal (e.g. Pape’s article on the strategic logic of suicide terrorism).Is it retrievable?T F APA stands for Advanced Protracted Agony.
34 Why APA? A documentation style Gives credit to your sources Increases your credibility bySubstantiating your opinionDistinguishing your ideas from your sources’Makes it possible to find sources
35 Give credit; avoid plagiarism Cite words and ideas from other authorsQuotations taken word-for-word from a sourceParaphrases and summaries of other authors’ ideasInformation and ideas that are not widely known or available in a basic reference workAnything from a source that might be mistaken for your own words or ideas if left uncitedThe assumption is that you’re going to be influenced by other authors. For example, Pink mentions Alfie Kohn’s Punished by Rewards (1999). You may agree or disagree with the premise that rewards can backfire, but you can’t claim expertise on motivation if you don’t know Kohn’s work. (other e.g.s, Selye--stress; Knowles--adult learning; James McGregor Burns--leadership)When in doubt, cite
36 What makes me credible? Credentials Experience Insight Writing style AUTHORAUTHORITIESCredentialsExperienceInsightWriting styleDepth of knowledgeIn academic writing, your opinion is only as good as• your thinking• your evidenceGiving credit credibility
37 Gain credibility Opinion: Using APA style will help you succeed. • How do you know?• Why should I believe you?Show me the evidence!Substantiated opinion:Many editors and reviewers “have extremely low tolerance for APA errors. Thus, it is clear that authors who submit manuscripts to journals wherein APA style is required would benefit from becoming as familiar as possible with the Publication Manual” (Onwnegbuzie, Combs, Slate, & Frels, 2010, p. ix).Academic writing: show me the evidenceOnwuegbuzie, A. J., Combs, J. P. Slate, J. R., & Frels, R. K. (2010). Editorial: Evidence-based guidelines for avoiding the most common APA errors in journal article submissions. Research in the Schools, 16(2), ix-xxxvi.
38 Give credit; get credit What’s cited shows the quality of your researchWhat’s not cited shows the quality of your thinkingMost researchers define procrastination by its negative consequences, including Ferrari (2000, 2005), Steel (2010), and Tice and Baumeister (1997). Yet Chu and Choi (2005) argue that procrastination can be a productive way to adapt to rapidly changing priorities. Consider this real-life example. At the beginning of a curriculum writing projects, guidelines often go through several rapid revisions. Veteran writers who wait for final guidelines before submitting work meet Chu and Choi’s criterion for productive procrastination because they consciously use delay as a proactive strategy.Two kinds of thinking going on--debunking myth and drawing conclusion from Boice’s studiesParenthetical citations let you distinguish between your thoughts and the authors.
39 Why APA? APA is Efficient and flexible Suited to science Standard in your fieldDate-focusedRequired for publicationIf none of the 90+ models in Chapter 7 are an exact match, you find the example that’s the closest match and adapt it – or the APA Style Experts.
40 APA-style citations are Generally shorter than other stylesFlexible: follow the nearest modelPink’s citation of GolemanFor example, Daniel Goleman, author of the groundbreaking book Emotional Intelligence, has [explored] how much IQ accounts for career success.APA-style citationFor example, Goleman (1997) has [explored] how much IQ accounts for career success.The first example shows how Pink cited Daniel Goleman’s work (Pink, 2005, p. 53)You’ll see an example of what to do when none of the 90+ models in Chapter 7 are an exact match.MLA-style URLs can have up to 17 elements; APA-style citations for Internet sources typically have around 5
41 APA focuses on dates How current is your source? Which one of many studies is cited?Ferrari has been publishing on procrastination since the 1990s.Ferrari (2000) has classified procrastinators as arousal types, avoiders, and decisional procrastinators.in-text citation
42 APA-style citations are Used by experts in your fieldBIG NAMES IN PROCRASTINATION RESEARCHFerrariChoiTiceBaumeisterSteelALTERNATIVE VIEWSPychyl&As a graduate student, you’re joining a community of thinkers, and this is the way these thinkers cite their sources—and each other. When Tice and Baumeister argue that Chu and Choi are completely wrong, they cite their work with APA: WORDS “Procrastination is not a neutral or innocuous form of time management, let alone a helpful or beneficial one (as some people claim)” (Tice & Baumeister,1997, p. 456).
43 How do I contribute? AUTHOR & SELECT SHARE APPLY ARGUE CRITIQUE Choi&SteelFerrariPychylTiceBaumeisterSELECTAUTHORThose of you with teaching background will recognize these verbs from Bloom’s taxonomySHAREAPPLYARGUECRITIQUEEVALUATECOMBINETRACE PROJECT
44 APA-style citations are Important to your teachersExpectations rise as you progress.Ask: what are your APA priorities?Important to editors if you ever publishWhole thing is geared toward publication, which is why the formatting is so plain and there’s a running head
45 How do I learn APA? Two common approaches: Sweat the small stuff Advantage: builds a sense of confidenceDisadvantage: lots of small stuffThink functionalityAdvantage: fulfills purposesDisadvantage: requires persistenceOnwnegbuzie, Combs, Slate, and Frels identified 40 most common errors, and many are things we’re not going to cover. As you move forward, you’ll want to pay attention to number style, biased language, and any instructors’ pet peeves.
46 APA’s two purposes Acknowledge any words or ideas from other sources. Provide enough information to locate your sources.Those are the basics. Remember that the rules about how to implement these principles were made by people who would wear T-shirt (and who would also look it up to find that per Webster’s 11th, it is indeed hyphenated)
47 What about the small stuff? One option: use a templateTom will you the template. You can also download it.
48 What’s the trick?You don’t need really advanced Word skills to create an APA-style document, but many people are not comfortable creating different headers and footers, sections, and hanging indents. If you’re a non-techie, this template is for you.If you are Word-savvy, you might want to look it over--there are some tips about headings and working quotations into your paper that might be useful.
49 Where do I start?The Basics of APA Style is the best way to get up to speed on format. Some of the formatting requirements are a bit challenging, so you can download a template
50 Where do APA experts live? For specific questions, the quickest way to find an answer might be to search the APA blog. The odds are that if you’re struggling with a question, someone else has struggled with it too--and they might have sent it to the experts at the APA Style blog.
51 Can I trust non-APA guides? There’s a lot of bad APA out there.If you use a citation maker, check the results.You might find these sites helpful:Dr. Abel Scribe’s Guides to APA Style and Documentation—one of the few accurate resources to focus on writing college papers:Diana Hacker’s Research and Documentation Online—clearer explanations than APA’s own Manual: bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch09_o.htmlUW Madison Writer’s Handbook—excellent online tutorials on format and documentation:
52 What about students?APA is designed for reports on scientific research, not college papers. The old edition had some helpful guidelines that were among the 168 pages cut in the 6th edition. Dr. Abel Scribe has developed extensive research. While not official APA, this site can save you lots of time. You may enjoy his opinions as well. There is a push to get APA to develop a guide specifically for college papers, but so far APA has acknowledged the suggestion without making any promises.Dr. Abel Scribe’s advice on APA for college papers:
53 Reference list first reference entry in-text citation APA documentation guide. (2011). Retrieved from University of Wisconsin Madison Writing Center website: writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPA.htmlFerrari, J. (2000, Special Issue). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task-delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), Retrieved from Academic Search Elite database.(“APA,” 2011)(Ferrari, 2000)In-text shows where you used information from sources in your paper;Reference list entries have information needed to locate the originalsFirst two elements of reference list (author-date or title-date) give you in-text citation
54 In-text citations second Researcher-focusedChronology-focusedIdea-focusedMann (2005) developed a (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination.In 2005, Mann developed a unique method for overcoming procrastination, which he calls the (10+2)*5 method.The (10+2)*5 method for overcoming procrastination has three steps: work for ten minutes, take a two-minute break, and go back to work, repeating the cycle for an hour (Mann, 2005).In-text shows where you used information from sources in your paper;Reference list entries have information needed to locate the originals
55 Quick Quiz: What’s the error? Steel, P. (2013). The definition of procrastination. Retrieved from The Procrastination Equation website:Which of the 742,000 results was used?What’s the in-text citation? Remember this is author-date and the in-text is just a pointer.
56 Quick Quiz: What’s missing? Recently Steel found that traditional explanations of procrastination, including fear of failure, self-handi- capping, and rebelliousness, were not supported by research. In his view, only Temporal Motivation theory has been validated.(2009)How recent is “recently”?Where do I get this information?Figure 1. The Procrastination Equation. Source: Steel (2009) Available atSteel, P. (2009). Theories of procrastination. Retrieved from
57 Quiz: Which source is credible? Terrace, H. S., Petitto, L. A., Sanders, R. J., & Bever, T. G. (1979). Can an ape create a sentence? Science, 206,Washoe: The signing chimp. (n.d.) Retrieved February 5, 2005, from Mrs. Smith’s class Web site: classprojects.htmlThis allows you to judge the quality of your sources
58 Shortcuts Free citation-makers CitationMachine <citationmachine.net>Creates in-text and reference list entriesHas built-in helpNoodleTools Express <Cites legal cases and documentsWill store source info in paid versionNotice that only author’s first initial is given, and titles of articles and books use title case. At first, thought that was to be gender-neutral--e.g., is it Alvin or Annabelle? However, early rules would have added Mrs. A. So I suspect it’s a space issue: initials and lower-case letters take up less space. So do &s instead of and.Pass out Wisconsin handout and circle: You will need this even if you use software, because you need to check the results. Only thing missing: doi
59 EBSCO (Available at Cowles, DSM, URB, WDM) When you print or , you can request that APA citation be created. You then cut-and-paste the results into your document.
60 Citations: Check the result EBSCO RESULTPink, D. (2008). Do the RIGHT THING. People Management, 14(7), 34.CORRECT APA FORMATPink, D. (2008). Do the right thing. People Management, 14(7), 34.
61 Using a citation maker Launch the citation maker. Choose your documentation style (APA).Choose the type of source. Hint: You may need to explore links like More or figure out that Web-based Media means “video.”Fill in the blanks with as much information as you have.Note formatting hints (First initial only for author’s first name.)If information is missing, check links like About Us to see if you can unearth any buried nuggets. If you look for and can’t find information to put in a blank, leave it empty.Click the button that creates the citation.Double-check the result.Make needed corrections and copy the citation into your document or copy, paste, and correct in your document.These are most useful to help you capture all of the relevant information and to provide hints: e.g., use first initial instead of author’s first name“Trust, but verify” definitely applies here.
62 Dig before omitting info Authorcheck beginning and end of articlevisit the home pagecheck links like “About Us”check beginning and end of articlevisit the home pagecheck links like “About Us”
63 Where info hides check beginning and end of article AuthorTitlecheck beginning and end of articledistinguish site titles and subheads from article titlesvisit the home pagecheck “About Us”Datecheck beginning and end of articlelook for “last updated”generally, title is closest to articleuse most recent copyright date (not 1997–2007)be alert to external links
64 Citation makers: Cite Fast DisclaimerNone are perfect.Dig before leaving a blank.
65 Citation Machine Disclaimer Citation Machine (www.citationmachine.net) None are perfect.DisclaimerDig before leaving a blank.Video demo: /t/MzI2N2FkZmYRemember: British call computers TOMs or Totally Obedient Morons. Double-check results. Citation Machine can’t handle sources with no author. BibMe doesn’t work well with n.d.
66 NoodleBib Express NoodleBib Express (www.noodletools.com) Video demo: /t/ZWMyN2JjNjFree version is available; can also subscribe for ~$4 year. That allows you to save. NoodleBib is the only one I know of that does legal citations (based on Bluebook).
67 Bedford Bibliographer Has built-in hintsIs most accurate (except for websites)Easiest way to get there is to Google bedford bibliographerAllows you to save, export, and annotate; has built-in modelsAllows you to save, edit, and exportAccount is free
68 Fine points What to quote Block quotations Placing in-text citations No page numberMissing informationNo authorMore than one authorNo dateMore than one sourceQuoted quotationJust one chapterSponsored siteDOIsStarted in the 1920s as a way to simplify rules for submitting papers to journals in the social sciences. Then anal-retentive details crept in.
69 What to quote Any words from the original should be quoted. At least half the mystery novels published violate the law that the solution, once revealed, must seem to be inevitable.—Raymond ChandlerExceptionscommon languagewrit of habeas corpussituational leadership theorycommon knowledgewidely knowneasily available in standard referencesRaymond Chandler declared that readers should feel that the solution of a mystery is “inevitable.”
70 Quotations < 40 wordsSet off someone else’s exact words with quotation marks“Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid” (Chandler, 1945).From Chandler’s Atlantic Monthly essay “The Simple Art of Murder,” 1945From Chandler’s “The Simple Art of Murder,” Atlantic Monthly (1945, November)Chandler (1945) believed that a detective should be “the best man in his world.”
71 Quotations: 40+ words Set off long quotations as block quotations The classic definition of a detective comes from “The Simple Art of Murder”:Use a new line and left indent instead of quotation marks.5"Down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who is neither tarnished nor afraid. The detective in this kind of story must be such a man. He is the hero, he is everything…. He must be, to use a rather weathered phrase, a man of honor…. (Chandler, 1945)Preview block quotesHint: Word will count words if you highlight them and choose Tools, Word Count.
72 Remember in-text citations? Basic format: (Author, year, page or section head)Researcher-focusedBurns (2003) has stated that leadership begins “where change begins” (p. 140).Chronology-focusedIn 1978, Burns published Leadership, a seminal work in an emerging field. In 2003, he proposed solutions to global problems in Transforming Leadership.Idea-focusedThe innovator’s approach to leadership is exemplified by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first days in office (Burns, 2003, p. 181).
73 Use only stable page #sIf author/date are given in text, that information is not repeated within parentheses at the end.bookprint versionPDFSTABLE PAGE #sUse only stable page numbers.Use section headers for Internet sources that have them (Steel, n.d., My Definition, para. 1).
74 No page # / header?“The future belongs to a different kind of person,”Pink says….Pink claims we’re living in a different era, a different age. An age in which those who “think different” may be valued more than ever.”SOURCE- REFLECTIVE STATEMENTSOURCEGarr Reynold’s comments on A Whole New Mind, from Presentation ZenGreat example of how to add value to a sourceA source-reflective statement is a comment to show where source material ends and your thoughts begin. As Pink says…. Pink is in a minority….It would be easy to assume that …. but in reality….. This meta-language is characteristic of academic discourse, and one way to pick it up is to read.
75 What about… no author? Start with key words from title Use only as much as necessaryFollow standard formatting(“Personality,” 2008).(Types of Procrastinators, 2005).(“Procrastination,” 2008a)(“Procrastination,” 2008b)Beginning chapters of the book are solid crash courseTutorial available from APA talks you through setting up manuscript (
76 What about…many authors? Consult the Publication Manual, Table 6.1Beginning chapters of the book are solid crash courseTutorial available from APA talks you through setting up manuscript (
77 What about…no date? Use n.d. IN-TEXT Steel (n.d.) defined procrastination as “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay.”Beginning chapters of the book are solid crash courseTutorial available from APA talks you through setting up manuscript (REFERENCE LIST Steel, P. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from Procrastination Central Web site:
78 What about…many sources? Separate with semicolonAlphabetize within citation to match order of reference listMULTIPLE CITATIONMost researchers emphasize the negative consequences of procrastination (Ferrari, 2005; Steel, 2008; Tice & Baumeister, 1997).Arrange in alphabetical order, so they match order in reference list
79 What about…quoted quotation? Ideally, find the originalSecond-best: use as cited in to direct readers to reference list entryINDIRECT QUOTATIONProcrastinators trade “short term gain for long term pain,” according to Steel (as cited in Kahn, 2008).APA calls this “secondary source” 6.17Looking up Steel in the reference list doesn’t help readers find the source of the quotation, because the quotation is not from the original, but from KahnREFERENCE ENTRYKahn, U. (2008, December 7 ). Academics invent a mathematical equation for why people procrastinate. The Telegraph. Retrieved from
80 What about…one chapter? If it’s by one author, cite the book.If it’s a chapter in a book with many authors, cite the chapter and the book.Benedict, J. (2000). Sports culture contributes to domestic violence. In T. L. Roloff (Ed.), Domestic violence: Opposing viewpoints (pp ). Greenhaven, CT: Greenhaven.How can you tell the difference between the chapter title and the book title?Titles of books, movies, and other complete works are italicized.
81 What about…sponsored site? Site sponsor is identified just before URLReaders can judge source credibilitySerial murder: Multidisciplinary perspectives for investigators. (2005). Retrieved from Behavioral Analysis Unit, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Web site:Beginning chapters of the book are solid crash courseTutorial available from APA talks you through setting up manuscript (
82 What about…DOIs? Resolve: http://crossref.org Mayer, D. (2007, June). Why write? To impact patient care! Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 323. Retrieved May 20, doi: /07.CJON.323DOI = Digital Object IdentifierIs permanent; eliminates File Not Found errors; goes to wherever publisher wantsYou may have to type into something like crossref.org or addMore info on DOI System:
83 Quality: Too much missing? If several elements of a full citation are missing, is the source credible enough to use?Road rage and teens. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2007, from alyplace/mystery.html
84 How do I cite 242 sources?If edition: Title (2nd ed.).
85 Follow standard modelREFERENCE ENTRY #18Pink, D. (2005). A whole new mind: Why right-brainers will rule the future. New York, NY: Penguin.IN-TEXT (Pink, 2005)If edition: Title (2nd ed.).
86 Follow model w. tweakAsk them to copy: proof style points--punctuation. Italics. Indent.Re: dual publisher, I couldn’t find a model so ed APA’s Style Expert: Result:Go for the simplest solution that lets readers access source, per 8/26/09 from Kim Till, manuscript editor, APA Journals:>The primary concern of a citation is to allow> your reader to access as easily as possible the resources that you used,> so this should cover your bases.REFERENCE ENTRYMorin, E. (2001). The reform of thinking and education in the twenty-first century. In J. Binde (Ed.), Keys to the 21st century (pp ). Oxford, UK: Berghahn/UNESCO.IN-TEXT (Morin, 2001)
87 Adapt monograph modelREFERENCE ENTRY #22Gardner, H. (2007). Five minds for the future [summary].Retrieved fromIN-TEXT (Gardner, 2007)Used #22, p. 204: limited circulation monograph from electronic database
88 Follow closest modelREFERENCE ENTRY #26Goleman, D. (2000, March-April). Leadership that gets results (Reprint ). Harvard Business Review, pp Available from Harvard Business Publishing:IN-TEXT(Goleman, 2000)In this case, need to add reprint number and information about where to order
89 Adapt modelREFERENCE ENTRY #49Norton, R. (2010). Reposting of how to teach a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Video posted toIN-TEXT (Norton, 2010)Note: Norton’s YouTube account was hacked, so the video has been reposted. If the URL for a source you’re using changes, you should cite the new URL--remember, the point is to help readers locate the source. The old URL does them little good.If you can’t find an exact match for the type of source you’re using, use the nearest possible model. You can also Google and pick models from academic libraries. This one is from University of British Columbia:
90 Resources http://apastyle.org Free tutorial on the basics is a good way to get the formattingBias-free language and other material is in the manual; good crash courseUnfortunately, they’re not updating their software