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VUS 4 & 5 The American Revolution & Constitution

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1 VUS 4 & 5 The American Revolution & Constitution
The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by…

2 How did the ideas of John Locke and Thomas Paine influence Jefferson’s writings in the Declaration of Independence? VUS4a Locke wrote that: All people are free, equal, and have “natural rights” of life, liberty, and property that rulers cannot take away. new political ideas about the relationship between people and their government helped to justify the Declaration of Independence.

3 Government in England 1215, a group of nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. limits the King’s power. Allowed nobles to help write the nation’s laws

4 The Enlightenment The period known as the “Enlightenment” in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries saw the development of new ideas about the rights of people and their relationship to their rulers. John Locke was an Enlightenment philosopher whose ideas influenced the American belief in self-government.

5 Enlightenment ideas All original power resides in the people, and they consent to enter into a “social contract” among themselves to form a government to protect their rights (Also Epicurus’ idea 300 yrs BC). In return, the people promise to obey the laws and rules established by their government, establishing a system of “ordered liberty.”

6 Locke’s ideas about the sovereignty and rights of the people were radical and challenged the centuries-old practice throughout the world of dictatorial rule by kings, emperors, and tribal chieftains

7 Why the halo? Who’s the guy with the cross? What’s Hagia Sophia?

8 England became G.Britain
Henry VIII united kingdoms of England and Wales In 1707 with Scotland People = British

9 Stuart Monarchs Name, Reign Relation to America James I (1603 - 1625)
Refused to listen to Puritan demand for reform Charles I ( ) Irritated Puritans and Parliament; executed Oliver Cromwell ( ) Interregnum Established colonies in Jamaica & West Indies Charles II ( ) Allied England with France, a move that led to war with the Dutch and the acquisition of New Amsterdam (now New York) for England. Charles II died in 1685. James II ( ) consolidated Mass, N.H, CT, RI, & Plymouth = Dominion of New England (Boston as capital)

10 Later Monarchs Name, Reign Relation to America
William III & Mary II Collapse of Dominion of NE; King William’s War Anne Queen Anne’s War George I Navigation Laws laxly enforced (salutary neglect” George II GA founded; King George’s War (War of Austrian Succession) & French and Indian War (7 Yrs. War) George III American Revolution

11 Cont. William and Mary to become the new monarchs
1688 King James II was forced to leave England by the Parliament during the Glorius Revolution William and Mary to become the new monarchs Allowed nobles to help write the nation’s laws

12 Cont. Only Parliament had power to raise an army or to collect taxes.
1689 the English Bill of Rights was established by William and Mary Only Parliament had power to raise an army or to collect taxes. Parliament became more powerful than the king

13 Decided to take stronger control of colonies
King George III Began ruling in 1760 Decided to take stronger control of colonies Tried to extract money to pay for French and Indian War (British vs. French)

14 Vus 4b essential understanding
The ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence contradicted the realities of slavery and the undemocratic nature of political participation in the early decades of the new republic.

15 How did the Declaration of Independence become a road map for the new republic as it extended the franchise, provided for equality of opportunity, and guaranteed “unalienable rights”? VUS 4b

16 Declaration of Independence Jefferson detailed many of the grievances against the King of England that Thomas Paine had earlier described in Common Sense. the revolutionary generation formulated the political philosophy and laid the institutional foundations for the system of government under which we live.

17 Excerpts from Declaration of Independence
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” “That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed….” “That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government….”

18 Vus 4b Essential Knowledge
The key principles of the Declaration of Independence increased political, social, and economic participation in the American experience over a period of time. Political participation (equality) Extending the franchise Upholding due process of law Providing free public education Social participation (liberty) Abolishing slavery Extending civil rights to women and other groups Economic participation (pursuit of happiness) Regulating the free enterprise system Promoting economic opportunity Protecting property rights

19 vus 4c Essential Understanding
The ideas of the Enlightenment and the perceived unfairness of British policies provoked debate and resistance by the American colonists.

20 Vus 4c continue Anglo-French rivalry leading to conflict with the colonies The rivalry in North America between Britain and France led to the French and Indian War, in which the French were driven out of Canada and their territories west of the Appalachian Mountains. As a result of the war, Britain took several actions that angered the American colonies and led to the American Revolution. These included the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, a region that was costly for the British to protect. new taxes on legal documents (the “Stamp Act”), tea, and sugar, to pay costs incurred during the French and Indian War and for British troops to protect colonists.

21 Map 5.1: The Seven Year’s War in America
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

22 Treaty of Paris France lost all land of N. America, except for 4 islands Spain gave Florida to G. Britain Louisiana: G. Britain took land east of river, and Spain had west G.B =Ohio Valley, Canada, and along Atlantic Ocean

23 Result of French and Indian War
Uh Oh!! West of Appalachian is prohibited! Ohio Valley

24 Map 5.2: European Powers in North America 1763
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

25 Vus4c cont. The beginning of the American Revolution
Resistance to British rule in the colonies mounted, leading to war: The Boston Tea Party occurred. The First Continental Congress was called, to which all of the colonies except Georgia sent representatives—the first time most of the colonies had acted together. The Boston Massacre took place when British troops fired on anti-British demonstrators. War began when the “Minutemen” in Massachusetts fought a brief skirmish with British troops at Lexington and Concord.


27 Henry Pelham "The Boston Massacre" 1770

28 Vus4c continue: What differences existed among Americans concerning separation from Great Britain? VUS4c Differences among the colonists The colonists were divided into three main groups during the Revolution: Patriots (1/3) Believed in complete independence from Britain Inspired by the ideas of Locke and Paine and the words of Virginian Patrick Henry (“Give me liberty, or give me death!”) Provided the troops for the American Army, led by Virginian George Washington Loyalists (Tories) 1/3 Remained loyal to Britain because of cultural and economic ties Believed that taxation of the colonies was justified to pay for British troops to protect American settlers from Indian attacks Neutrals 1/3 The many colonists who tried to stay as uninvolved in the war as possible

29 liberty death

30 Vus4d: Essential Understanding
The American rebels won their independence because the British government grew tired of the struggle soon after the French agreed to help the Americans.

31 Vus4d Essential Questions: What factors contributed to the victory of the American rebels?
Diplomatic Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France. The war did not have popular support in Great Britain. Military George Washington, general of the American army, avoided any situation that threatened the destruction of his army, and his leadership kept the army together when defeat seemed inevitable. Americans benefited from the presence of the French army and navy at the Battle of Yorktown, which ended the war with an American victory.

32 Map 6.1: The War in the North, 1775–1778

33 GW crossing the Delaware River after retreating from NY across NJ, DL river, to start offensive in Trenton + victory

34 Map 6.2: The War in the West, 1776–1782

35 (Chapter 6) Joseph Brant, by Gilbert Stuart, 1786
By 1776, Native Americans east of the Mississippi lived in a multicultural world. Besides being descended from or living with Indians from other tribes, they had adopted many of the goods and ways of Europeans. Some even spoke English or French, practiced Christianity, or married a white man or woman. Despite such cultural adaptations, most Indians still lived in Native communities and thought of themselves as Indian. Few Native Americans embodied the possibilities of multiculturalism as fully as Joseph Brant. Although a Mohawk Iroquois, Brant probably had Huron ancestors as well. Named Thayendanegea when he was born in 1743, he acquired the Christian name, Joseph, upon being baptized and later added his stepfather’s name, Brant, as a surname. He perfected his knowledge of Christianity and of English ways and language at a missionary school in Connecticut. Brant’s connection with powerful Britons was forged when his older sister, Molly, married Sir William Johnson, Britain’s leading official in the colonies. Brant twice traveled to London, where he met with George III and was lionized by the public. Besides his efforts on behalf of his own people and the British cause during and after the Revolution, Brant translated the Gospel of Mark and the Anglican Book of Common Prayer into Mohawk. He hobnobbed with the rich and famous in England and America and, in his later years, lived in grand style with a full array of servants. Several famous artists painted his portrait, including Gilbert Stuart, whose work you see here. Despite his immersion in English culture, in 1789 when Brant reflected on his life, good fortune, and all that he had seen during his travels, he concluded, “I am obliged to give my opinion in favor of my own people.” Questions for Discussion: Think about what the photo suggests about social organization at Pueblo Bonito. How would the building of so massive a complex been coordinated? Would you expect the inhabitants to have been highly individualistic or intensely communal? How do they compare in this respect with other Native American peoples discussed in this chapter? In what ways does Stuart’s portrait reflect Brant’s embrace of both British and Indian cultures? What is the impression of Brant that Stuart conveys to viewers?

36 Map 6.3: The War in the South, 1778–1781

37 Factors That Led to Victory
Diplomatic Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France.

38 Europeans Who Helped Colonists
Marquis de Lafayette French Friedrich von Steuben German general who trained colonist Bernardo de Galvez Spanish governor of Louisiana who sent gun powder, food, medicine

39 I can’t take this weather!

40 Who fought in American Revolution?
Most Indians fought for British In American Army 5,000 African Americans Irish Americans Jewish American Other European American Women

41 Surrender Yorktown, Virginia


43 A poet who admired George Washington African American woman
Phyllis Wheatley A poet who admired George Washington African American woman

44 Vocabulary Surrender Treaty Ally Frontier Means to give up Agreement
Friend Frontier Area that has not been settled

45 Vocabulary Taxation Boycott Militia Collecting taxes
Protest by not buying Militia People who train themselves as soldiers

46 Definitions Delegate A person who represents others at a meeting. Olive Branch A letter saying that the colonists wanted peace and same rights as British and that they wanted to be ruled by Great Britain

47 United States Constitution
VUS 5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution of the United States and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by…

48 VUS5a: Essential Understanding
During the Constitutional Era, the Americans made two attempts to establish a workable government based on republican principles.

49 How did America’s pre-Revolutionary relationship with Britain influence the structure of the first national government? VUS5a American political leaders, fearful of a powerful central government like England’s, created the Articles of Confederation, adopted at the end of the war

50 The Articles of Confederation Provided for a weak national government
Vus 5a (cont. )What weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation led to the effort to draft a new constitution? VUS5a The Articles of Confederation Provided for a weak national government Gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states Provided for no common currency Gave each state one vote regardless of size Provided for no executive or judicial branch

51 VUS5b Essential Understanding
The Constitution of the United States established a government that shared power between the national government and state governments, protected the rights of states, and provided a system for orderly change through amendments to the Constitution itself.

52 Key issues and their resolutions
VUS 5b. How did the delegates to the Constitutional Convention balance competing interests & What compromises were reached at the Constitutional Convention? Key issues and their resolutions Made federal law the supreme law of the land when constitutional, but otherwise gave the states considerable leeway to govern themselves Balanced power between large and small states by creating a Senate, where each state has two senators, and a House of Representatives, where membership is based on population Placated the Southern states by counting slaves as three-fifths of the population when determining representation in the United States House of Representatives Avoided a too-powerful central government by establishing three co-equal branches—legislative, executive, and judicial—with numerous checks and balances among them Limited the powers of the federal government to those identified in the Constitution

53 George Washington, president of the Convention
VUS 5b. How did the delegates to the Constitutional Convention balance competing interests & What compromises were reached at the Constitutional Convention? Cont. Key leaders George Washington, president of the Convention Washington presided at the Convention and, although seldom participating in the debates, lent his enormous prestige to the proceedings. James Madison, “Father of the Constitution” Madison, a Virginian and a brilliant political philosopher, often led the debate and kept copious notes of the proceedings—the best record historians have of what transpired at the Constitutional Convention. At the Convention, he authored the “Virginia Plan,” which proposed a federal government of three separate branches (legislative, executive, judicial) and became the foundation for the structure of the new government. He later authored much of the Bill of Rights.

54 Constitution = Laws of the Land
Nine out of 13 must ratify (sign) the constitution. At the end, 11 states ratified the Constitution

55 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (Continued)

56 The Constitution

57 Delegates Balanced Competing Interests at the Constitutional Convention

58 Delegates Balanced Competing Interests at the Constitutional Convention

59 Delegates Balanced Competing Interests at the Constitutional Convention

60 Key Leaders of the Constitutional Convention

61 Key Leaders of the Constitutional Convention

62 The Constitution and the Bill of Rights gave Americans a
blueprint for successful self-government that has become a model for the rest of the world.

63 VUS5c Essential Understanding
The major principles of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution were based on earlier Virginia statutes.

64 Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason)
How was the Bill of Rights influenced by the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom? VUS 5c Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason) Reiterated the notion that basic human rights should not be violated by governments Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson) Outlawed the established church—that is, the practice of government support for one favored church Bill of Rights James Madison consulted the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom when drafting the amendments that eventually became the United States Bill of Rights. the major principles of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution were based on earlier Virginia statutes.

65 VUS5d Essential Understanding
Elements of Federalist and Anti-Federalist thought are reflected in contemporary political debate on issues such as the size and role of government, federalism, and the protection of individual rights.

66 What were the major arguments for and against the Constitution of 1787 in the leading Federalist and Anti-Federalist writings and in the ratification debates? VUS5d Federalists advocated the importance of a strong central government, especially to promote economic development and public improvements. Today, those who see a primary role for the federal government in solving national problems are heirs to this tradition. Anti-Federalists feared an overly powerful central government destructive of the rights of individuals and the prerogatives of the states. Today, the more conservative thinkers echo these concerns and champion liberty, individual initiative, and free markets. The leading Virginia opponents of ratification were Patrick Henry and George Mason; the leading Virginia proponents of ratification were George Washington and James Madison.

67 The Federalists Wealthy (rich) people Believed strong government would protect their business James Madison, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, and Benjamin Franklin

68 Federalist against Antifederalist
Federalist favored the Constitution and central government. Antifederalist wanted states to have more control. Wanted the Bill of Rights (like in England)

69 Against ratification of the constitution
Who were the leading Federalists and Anti-Federalists in the pivotal ratification debate in Virginia? VUS5d The Anti-federalists Against ratification of the constitution They feared that the President would act like the English king they hated. They believed the Bill of Rights in the Constitution would protect citizens’ rights. Patrick Henry and Sam Adams.

70 VUS5e Essential Understanding
Important legal precedents established by the Marshall Court strengthened the role of the United States Supreme Court as an equal branch of the national government.

71 Chief Justice J Marshall
How did Chief Justice John Marshall, a Virginian, contribute to the growth of the United States Supreme Court’s importance in relation to the other branches of the national government? VUS5e The doctrine of judicial review set forth in Marbury v. Madison, the doctrine of implied powers set forth in McCulloch v. Maryland, and a broadly national view of economic affairs set forth in Gibbons v. Ogden are the foundation blocks of the Supreme Court’s authority to mediate disagreements between branches of governments, levels of government, and competing business interests. Chief Justice J Marshall


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