3 I. CHANGES IN ENGLISH AT SHAKESPEARE’S TIME William Shakespeare (16th - 17th )Early Modern EnglishThe latter half of the 15th century( the end of the Middle English period )to 1650
4 I. CHANGES IN ENGLISH AT SHAKESPEARE’S TIME The primary influence of printing press (invented in the 1476, 15th )Oral communication ---in EnglishWritten communication ---in LatinA practical means of reaching the public
5 I. CHANGES IN ENGLISH AT SHAKESPEARE’S TIME Words from other languages due to wars, exploration, diplomacy and colonizationNeologism(N.)Neologize(V.)To invent, borrow, or adopt a word or phrase from another languageBetween , 30,000 new words were added to the English language
6 II. INFLUENCE ON THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE -Vocabulary-Blank verse-Poetry
7 A. WORDS USED BY SHAKESPEARE 1. Invention:Misconception: Shakespeare "invented" many English words.Truth: Shakespeare's works are often the earliest cited written record of many words.
8 A. WORDS USED BY SHAKESPEARE Invention:Reason: Words are generally used in speech before appearing in writing, and oral uses are not recorded, therefore most words cannot be confirmed of their origins.Dictionary: Oxford English Dictionary (OED) lists a quotation from Shakespeare as its earliest example for many words or senses of a word.
9 2. EXAMPLES OF THE WORDS USED BY SHAKESPEARE Amazement (Noun)Definition: Overwhelming wonder, whether due to mere surprise or to admiration.Quotation: SHAKESPEARE Ham. III. ii Your behauior hath stroke her into amazement, and admiration.
10 2. EXAMPLES OF THE WORDS USED BY SHAKESPEARE Control (Noun)Definition: The fact of controlling, or of checking and directing action; the function or power of directing and regulating; domination, command, sway.Quotation: SHAKESPEARE Com. Err. II. i. 19 The winged fowles Are their males subiects, and at their controules.
11 2. EXAMPLES OF THE WORDS USED BY SHAKESPEARE Exposure (Noun)Definition: The action of exposing; the fact or state of being exposed. a. The action of uncovering or leaving without shelter or defence; unsheltered or undefended condition. Also, the action of subjecting, the state or fact of being subjected, to any external influence.Quotation: SHAKESPEARE Tr. & Cr. I. iii To weaken and discredit our exposure, How ranke soeuer rounded in with danger.
12 2. EXAMPLES OF THE WORDS USED BY SHAKESPEARE Lonely (Adjective)Definition: Of persons, etc., their actions, condition, etc.: Having no companionship or society; unaccompanied, solitary, lone.Quotation: SHAKESPEARE Cor. IV. i. 30, I go alone Like to a lonely Dragon, that his Fenne Makes fear'd, and talk'd of more then seene.
13 2. EXAMPLES OF THE WORDS USED BY SHAKESPEARE Submerge(Verb)Definition: pass. To be covered with water; to be sunk under water.Quotation: SHAKESPEARE Ant. & Cl. II. v. 94 So halfe my Egypt were submerg'd and made A Cesterne for scal'd Snakes.
14 B. BLANK VERSEBlank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme.Shakespeare's blank verse is one of the most important of all his influences on the way the English language was writtenAdaptation of free speech rhythm to the fixed blank-verse framework is an outstanding feature of Shakespeare's poetry
15 B. BLANK VERSEShakespeare developed the potential of blank verse for abrupt and irregular speech.One blank verse line is broken between two characters:My lord?A grave.He shall not live.Enough.(King John, 3.3)
16 C. POETRY Two main factors to the movement of living emotion verbal immediacythe molding of stress"When my love swears that she is made of truth, I do believe her, though I know she lies-"—(Sonnet CXXXVIII)Complex and even contradictory attitudes to a single emotion