Presentation on theme: "STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS"— Presentation transcript:
1 STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS M.S.VermaVice President – Technical TextilesM/s Reliance Industries Limited
2 GEOSYNTHETICS – GLOBAL OVERVIEW Worldwide demand for geosynthetics is projected to rise 5.3 percent annually to 4.7 billion square meters in 2013.China, India, Russia and other countries with large-scale infrastructure developments planned, and evolving environmental protection regulations and building construction codes are expected to register the strongest advances.Geo-synthetics are especially useful in an environment of increasing land scarcity, increased awareness of seismic hazards, and need more stringent environmental regulations especially in the context of India.Strong growth in China is demonstrated by use of geosynthetics in almost all government sponsored/controlled projects in various areas while such is not the case in India.
3 GEOSYNTHETICS – GLOBAL OVERVIEW Global ScenarioUSA dominates the consumptionChina Fast Catching upIndia consumes less than 1.5% Geosynthetics, produced globallyTremendous Potential Exists in IndiaGlobal Manufacturers like Terram, Du-pont, Naue focussing on Indian MarketIndia consumption ~ 1.5 % at 9 KTAAwareness Creation – First Step Towards Enhanced Consumption
4 But condition of the road? INDIAN ROAD NETWORKBut condition of the road?
5 INDIAN ROAD NETWORKQuality road …..means huge potential for Geo textile
6 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT Infrastructure ScenarioTotal Investment to double in vis-à-vis , Projected to cross 500,000CrGovt. to spend Rs Cr only for up-gradation of RoadsPrivate Sector Investment in Roads to cross 35% byThe Eleventh Five Year Plan has a special focus on Rural Infrastructure DevelopmentOpportunities for Geosynthetics
7 GEOSYNTHETICS – REGULATION NEED IN INDIA In view of large potential for cost savings, environmental protection, safety, economic and social importance of geo-synthetics in the infrastructural development in India and the environmental protection by their use, it is essential that their use is made mandatory in India just like mandatory regulation of fly ash or iodized salt, specially in the following areas:All highways, expressways and coastal roads, reinforcement with geosynthetics must be mandatory when the CBR ratio is ≤ 3.5.In rural road construction as these are repaired / reconstructed after a prolonged period.All coastal roads embankments which are on soft soil foundation, use of geosynthetics must be mandatory.The BOT system, needs be modified to DBOT to give emphasis on the initial design of the project and the latest technology like geosynthetics.
8 What are Geo-synthetics ? Geo-synthetics are synthetic products, where at least one of the components is made from a synthetic or natural polymer, in the form of a sheet, a strip or a three dimensional structure, non-woven, knitted, or woven which is used in contact with soil/rock and/or other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering applications .These include:Planar structures (geomembranes, geotextiles, geosynthetic barriers, geonets, geogrids, geostrips, geospacers and geomats, etc.) andThree-dimensional structures (geocells, geofoams, gabions and concrete filled mattresses).
11 POLYMERS USED IN GEOSYNTHETICS Chemically linked large molecules of carbon atoms with hydrogen or other atoms attachedPolypropylenePolyethylenePolyesterPolyamidePolystyrenePoly Vinyl ChloridePP/Polyester /PE Geosynthetics – Most widely used across the Globe (more than 95 percent)
12 GEOSYNTHETICS AREAS OF Application In Roads and Pavements:Subgrade separation and Stabilization,Base Reinforcement,Overlay Stress Absorption and Reinforcement.In Subsurface Drainage:Subgrade dewatering,Road base drainage,Structure drainage.In Erosion and Sediment ControlHard Armor Systems, Silt Fence.In Reinforced Soil Systems:Embankments over soft foundations,Reinforced Steepened slopes,Reinforced soil walls.In Seepage control systemsStructure water proofing,Environmental Protection.In Support Systems:Prefabricated Systems and On-site Fabrication
13 Advantages of Geo-synthetics Cheaper in poduct cost, transport and installation.Can be designed (predictability)Can be installed quickly with flexibility to construct during short period.Consistent over a wide range of soilsSpace SavingsMaterial Quality Control - More homogeneous than soil and aggregates.Better Construction Quality Control at siteEasy Material DeploymentLess Environmentally SensitiveImproved performance and extended lifeIncreased safety factorCompatible with field conditionsIncreased service life of flexible pavement section by a factor of 2.5 to 3.0 for weak subgrades (CBR 2%) and by 2.0 to 3.3 for moderate subgrades (CBR 4.2 to 4.5%)Increase in allowable load bearing capacity by 40 to 50% for subgrade CBR>3 and well over 50% for subgrade CBR<3Increase in Traffic Benefit Ratio (TBR) from 1.5 to 70.
14 Economic Importance of Geosynthetics Commonly accepted as durable, long lasting and environmentally safe solutions to geotechnical engineering projects.The cost of geo-synthetics applied usually between 3 to 5 per cent of the total cost of projects.For a number of projects, savings of 30 per cent in total project costs have been reported.Minimizes the regular repair and maintenance costs directly.Prevent accidents, increase efficiency of structures, minimize pollution and leads to efficient use of natural resources.
15 Environmental Importance of Geosynthetics The civil engineering structures need to have long term durability to prevent potential ecological disasters (floods, draughts, earthquakes, global warming) . Geosynthetics provide such long lasting solutions with minimum cost.Geo-techs are difficult or impossible to degrade. However, in view of their inert nature they can be disposed off without the danger of contamination.Geosynthetics assist the environment by acting as a containing barrier for toxic materials.The envisaged functional lifetime of geosynthetics is extremely long, in many cases over 100 years.Geosynthetics provide sealing and capping of pollution due to chemicals released after road and rail accidents into groundwater areas.
16 Geosynthetics -National / International Regulation Worldwide, approx. 40 countries have legislation/regulations (GRI Report).In Europe, the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC ; M/107) has to be followed and the use of geo-textiles is mandatory. In Japan, the Government Directive applies to landfill construction sites.In the US, many Govt agencies (fedral and state) have mandated the use of geo-synthetics in many applications. e.g. the use of silt fence fabrics for erosion and sediment control. US Environmental Protection Agency has mandated use of geo-synthetics in landfills (under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act). Also, in many applications geo-textiles are specified by govt agencies as the best product.Similarly California State has mandated the use of asphalt overlay over existing roadway.It is essential that their use is made mandatory in India in order to have increased efficiency with potential large cost saving, safety of structures and minimum environmental pollution including large saving of natural resources .
17 MAIN ROADBLOCKS FOR INCREASING USAGES OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN INDIA Lack of desired legislationLack of required standards on geosynthetic products as well as on design, construction and installation guidelinesLack of policy / regulatory initiatives by the central and state governmentsLack of awareness of standards and guidelines by the site engineers / field staffLack of national certifying and accreditation agencies for geosynthetics in the countryLack of R&D facilitiesIncompleteness of existing standards and guidelines
18 Geo-synthetics Standards ASTM StandardsISO standards (ISO/TC221)Indian standards (BIS)AASHTO standardsFHWA standardsNORDIC guidelinesBritish StandardsInternational Geosynthetic Society standards (IGS)Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI)Geosynthetic Materials Association (GMA)US Provinvcial standardsIndustrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI)Geo-syntheticaInternational Erosion Control Association (IECA)European Center For Standardization (CEN)
19 AIMS OF STANDARDS Interchangeability Variety Control Fitness for PurposeCompatibilitySafetyMAXIMUM OVERALL ECONOMY IN TERMS OF:COSTHUMAN EFFORTCONSERVATION OF RESOURCESRESULT:POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO RECURRING PROBLEMSDEFINITION OF THE QUALITY LEVEL OF PRODUCTS
20 BASIC APPROACH Consensus Principle Balanced Committee Structure TECHNICAL COMMITTEESTRUCTURE(Members From)ManufacturersManufacturersBASIC APPROACH Consensus Principle Balanced Committee StructureConsumers, Government DepartmentsConsumers, Government DepartmentsTechnologists , Regulating Authorities, Testing Laboratories, Consultants, Universities, Other ExpertsTechnologists , Regulating Authorities, Testing Laboratories, Consultants, Universities, Other Experts
21 BIS/IRC/RDSO STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS BIS standards mainly on test methods, jute & coir geotextiles, PVC / HDPE geomembrane for waterproof lining (IS 14715:2000; IS 14986:2001; IS 15869:2008; IS 15871:2009;IS 15909:2010; and IS 15910:2010 Geosynthetics for highways)IRC standards mainly on recommended practices/guidelines and are being revised to include geosyntheticsIRC/RDSO standards generally do not refer BIS standards and requirements of geosyntheics in both are at large variation.Geosynthetic specifications mentioned in IRC/RDSO standards are generally incomplete.BIS standards are also incomplete w.r.t. guidelines for design, construction, installation and storage which are essential to get the best results of geosynthetic applications.There appears no proper coordination between IRC and BISStandards activity in IRC/RDSO is not universally acceptable and needs drastic changes to include all stakeholders
22 EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL GEOTEXTILE STANDARDS - FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATION
23 EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL GEOTEXTILE STANDARDS
24 REQUIREMENTS OF GEOSYNTHETICS General Properties Index PropertiesMaterial Type & Construction Strip tensile strength (2% & 5% strain and ultimate tensile strength)Polymer(s) Grab strengthMass Creep resistanceThickness Flexural strengthRoll dimensions Cutting - Trapezoidal tear strengthSpecific Gravity Shear modulusAbsorption Poisson’s ratioBurst StrengthPuncture ResistancePenetrationFlexibility (Flexural Strength)
26 Parameters for Geo-synthetic Selection Geosynthetic Specification should also cover:Material SelectionDesigning of GeosyntheticFunctional RequirementsApplication and Performance RequirementsDurability RequirementsSurvivability RequirementsRequired Geosynthetic Structural and Integrity PropertiesStorage, handling and installation requirements