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Perception Is a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation. Perception largely depends upon sense for raw data. The cognitive.

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Presentation on theme: "Perception Is a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation. Perception largely depends upon sense for raw data. The cognitive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Perception Is a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation. Perception largely depends upon sense for raw data. The cognitive process filters, modifies or completely changes the data.

2 Nature & Importance of Perception
Perception is a unique interpretation of the situation, not an exact recording of it. Recognition of difference between the perceptual world and the real world is vital.

3 Perception Process Cognitions are basically bits of information
Cognitive process involve the ways in which people process the information People’s individual differences and unique- ness are largely the result of cognitive process






9 Perceptual Selectivity
Intensity The more intense the external stimulus, the more likely it is to be perceived Size Larger the size of object, the more likely it will be perceived. Contrast Objects which stand out against the background or which are not what people are expecting will receive their notice

10 Repeated stimulus is more attention getting than a single one.
Repetition Repeated stimulus is more attention getting than a single one. Motion People will pay more attention to moving objects in their field of view than they will to stationary objects. Novelty A navel or unfamiliar objects can serve as attention getter

11 Perceptual Organization
What takes place in the perceptual process once the information from any situation or object is received. Perceptional process organizes the incoming information into a meaningful whole.

12 Figure - Ground The perceived objects stand out as different and separable from their general back ground.

13 Perceptual Grouping The process of grouping several different stimuli together into a recognizable pattern.

14 Perceptual Grouping The process of grouping several different stimuli together into a recognizable pattern. Closure : Perceiving whole when one does not exist. Continuity : Tendency to perceive continuous lines or patterns. Proximity : Group of stimuli that are close together are perceived as a whole pattern of parts belonging together. Similarity : Similar stimuli are perceived as belonging to a common group.

15 Perceptual Constancy Individuals demonstrate constancy of perception in a tremendously variable and highly complex world.

16 Perceptual Context All perceptions are based on context of situation.
The organizational culture and structure provide primary context in which managers and workers do their perceiving.

17 Perceptual Defence Blocking or refusing to recognize stimuli or situational events in a particular context that are unacceptable or threatening Denial Modification and distortion Recognition, but refusal to change Change in perception

18 Social Perception Social perception is directly concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals How we get to know others.

19 Factors influencing how a person perceives others.
Knowing one self makes it easier to see other accurately. One’s own characteristics effect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people. Accuracy in perceiving is not a single skill.

20 Characteristics of person being perceived that influence perception
Status of person will greatly influence other’s perception of the person. Role of person will have similar affects on perception. Visible traits will also greatly influence perception. Tall, fat, bald, fair color, attractiveness.

21 Psychological Factors in Perception
Attribution. How people explain the cause of another’s or their own behavior. Dispositional Attribution Situational Attribution Stereotyping Tendency to perceive another person as belonging to a single class or category. Halo Effect. Under the halo effect, the person is perceived on the basis of one trait. (whatever that trait is, it over rides all other traits in forming perception)

22 Impression Management
The process by which people attempt to manage or control the perceptions others form of them. People tend to present themselves so as to impress other in a socially desirable way. Impression motivation As goal that motivates a person to impress others. Impression construction the specific type of impression people want to make and how they go about doing it.

23 PERSONALITY The stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment.

24 Personality How people affect others and how they understand and view themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person – situation interaction.

25 Personality Traits Extraversion Emotional Stability Agreeableness
Conscientiousness Openness to experience

26 Sociable, Talktive, Assertive
Extraversion Sociable, Talktive, Assertive The extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. High extraverts enjoy social situations, while those low on this dimension (introverts) avoid them.

27 Emotional Stability Relaxed, Secure, Stable The degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control. People with high emotional stability are self confident and have high self-esteem. Those with lower emotional stability tend to have negative standpoint, be tense and nervous and feel insecure.

28 Agreeableness Good natured, Cooperative, Trusting The extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. Agreeable people are warm and considerate. Less agreeable people tend to be cold and aloof.

29 Conscientiousness Responsible, Dependable, Persistent, Achievement - oriented The degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented. Conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated. Less conscientious people are unreliable.

30 Openness to Experience
Imaginative, artistically sensitive, Intellectual The extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas. Open people tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open people favour the status quo.

31 People`s attempts to understand themselves are called self–concept.
The self – Concept People`s attempts to understand themselves are called self–concept. The self – esteem People`s self concept about their self–perceived competence and self–image is called self-esteem The self – efficacy People`s self concept about themselves as to how they can cope with situation as they arise

32 Person – Situation Interaction
Personality dimensions are flexible People are not static, acting the same in all situations Every day situations change people

33 Development of Personality
Adult Life Stages Entering adult world (ages 22 – 28) Settling down (ages 33 – 40) Entering middle adulthood (ages 45 – 50) End of middle adulthood (ages 55 – 60) Transition Periods Age 30 transition (ages 28 – 33) Mid-life transition (ages 40 – 45) Age 50 transition (ages 50 – 55) Late adult transition (ages 60 – 65)

34 Immaturity – Maturity Scale
Human personality (rather than going through precise stages) progresses along a scale from immaturity as as infant to maturity as an adult. Immaturity Passivity Dependence Few ways of behaving Shallow interests Short time perspective Subordinate position Lack of self - awareness Maturity Activity Independence Diverse behavior Deep interests Long time perspective Superordinate position Self awareness & control

35 Socialization Process
The continuous impact from the social environment on an individual`s personality is called socialization process. Socialization process starts with the initial contact between a mother and her new infant.

36 Organizational Socialization
Org. socialization starts when a person joins an organization as an employee. Main characteristics of Org. Socialization Change of attitude, values & behaviors Adjustment to new job, workgroup, Org.- practices Mutual influence between new and old employees and their managers. Criticality of early socialization period.

37 Special Techniques for socializing : new employees
Provide a challenging first job. Provide relevant training. Provide timely and consistent feed back. Appoint a good first supervisor to be incharge of socialization. A relaxed orientation program. Place new employees with workgroups with high morale.

38 Attitude Personality is thought of a whole person, while attitude is part of personality (attitude may make up the personality) Attitude is a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object

39 Characteristics of Attitude
Persistence Attitude tend to persist unless something is done to change them. Severity Attitude can fall any where on a scale from very favorable to very unfavorable Direction Attitudes can be directed toward some object or person about which a person has feelings

40 Components of Attitudes
Emotional Informational Behavioral Emotional component involves person`s feeling about an object. Positive, Neutral, Negative Informational component consists of the beliefs and information a person has about an object. Behavioral component consists of a person`s tendencies to behave in a perticular way toward an object.

41 Functions of Attitudes
Adjustment function Attitudes often help people adjust to their work environment. Ego – Defensive function Attitudes help people to defend their self – images. Value – expressive function Attitudes provide people with a basis for expressing their values. Knowledge function Attitudes help supply standards and frames of reference that allow people to organize and explain world around them.

42 Changing Attitudes Providing new information Use of fear
Attitudes can be changed. Some times it is in the best interest of organization, management and employees. Providing new information Use of fear Resolving discrepancies Influence of friends & peers Co- opting approach

43 Barriers to changing Attitude
Prior comitments / unwillingness to change Insufficient information Not resolving discrepancies

44 JOB SATISFACTION It is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one`s job or job experience. Dimentions of job satisfaction Emotional response Outcomes meeting or exceeding expectations Attitudes Factors affecting job satisfaction Work itself Pay Promotions Supervision Working conditions Workgroup

45 Outcomes of Job Satisfaction
Satisfaction & productivity Turnover Absenteeism Behavior, attitude

46 Enhancing job satisfaction
Making jobs more enjoyable Having fair pay, benefits and promotion opportunities. Matching people`s skill & interests with jobs. Designing jobs more exciting & satisfying.

A strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization A willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization A definite belief in, and acceptance of, the values and goal of the organization

Effective commitment It involves employee`s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involment in the organization Continuance Commitment Involves commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization. Normative commitment Involves the employee`s feeling of obligation to stay with the organization

49 Outcomes of Org. Commitment
High performance Low turnover Low absenteeism Warm, supportive organization climate Fulfillment of dimensions of commitment. Continuance of positive attitude, morale and benefits.

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