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Motivation Organizational Behaviour Lecture No. 13 Zain Ul Abideen.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation Organizational Behaviour Lecture No. 13 Zain Ul Abideen."— Presentation transcript:


2 Motivation Organizational Behaviour Lecture No. 13 Zain Ul Abideen

3 Leaders are Readers Peter Drucker The Effective Executive (1967)
“Morale in an organization does not mean that “people get along together”; the test is performance, not conformance.” Why are people motivated to do those things? VIDEO

4 Elements of Work Motivation
Direction of Behavior Which behaviors does a person choose to perform In an organization? Level of Effort How hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior? Table 6.1 lists the elements of work motivation and provides a definition for each element and lists an example. The example for direction of behavior is “ Does an engineer take the time and effort to convince a skeptical superior of the need to change the design specifications for a new product to lower production costs?” The example for level of effort is “Does an engineer prepare a report outlining problems with the original specifications, or does the engineer casually mention the issue when he or she bumps into the supervisor in the hall and hope that the supervisor will take the advice on faith?” The example for level of persistence is “When the supervisor disagrees with the engineer and indicates that a change in specification is a waste of time, does the engineer persist in trying to get the change implemented or give up despite his or her strong belief in the need for change?” Level of Persistence When faced with obstacles how hard does a person keep trying to perform a chosen behavior successfully?

5 Motivation Directly or Indirectly Dominates Organizational Behavior
Personality….motivational propensities Psychological contracts Goal Setting Theory O.B. Modification Compensation Social Identity Theory WHY do people do what they do? What drives motivation to engage, motivation to withdraw, motivation to perform, motivation to quit?

6 Discuss Motivation is rarely the core issue Abilities Job Design
Tools at Work Leadership All problems are not solved by having motivated employees

7 The Process of Motivation

8 Individual Approaches

9 Primary Motives Human motives are variously called physiological, biological, unlearned, or primary. Two criteria must be met in order for a motive to be included in the primary classification: It must be unlearned, and it must be physiologically based. Even though the brain pathways will be developed in different ways and people develop different appetites for the various physiological motives, they will all have essentially the same primary needs. What are some examples of Primary Motives?

10 General and Secondary Motives
General Motives The Curiosity, Manipulation, and Activity Motives The Affection Motive Secondary Motives The Power Motive The Achievement Motive The Affiliation Motive The Security Motive The Status Motive Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motives Intrinsic- Behavior for it’s own sake Extrinsic- Based on acquisition of material or social rewards

11 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. nAch nPow nAff


13 From Individual to Work Motivation Approaches
(e.g., from psychology to Org Behavior)

14 Work-Motivation Approaches

15 Content Theories of Motivation

16 Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation
Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary? Motivation factors increase job satisfaction Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction Company policy & administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Working conditions Salary Status Security 10 13

17 The Content Theories of Work Motivation

18 Process Theories of Motivation

19 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs
Valence: Value or importance placed on a particular reward Instrumentality: Belief that performance is related to rewards Expectancy: Belief that effort leads to performance 24

20 Expectancy Model of Motivation
Effort (Expectancy) Effort Performance (Instrumentality) Reward (Valence) Perceived effort– performance probability Perceived performance– reward probability Perceived value of reward “If I work hard, will I get the job done?” “What rewards will I get when the job is well done?” “What rewards do I value?” 25

21 Adams’s Theory of Inequity
Inequity - the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving

22 Motivational Theory of Social Exchange
Negative Outcomes < Outcomes Inequity Inputs Inputs Positive Outcomes > Outcomes Inequity Inputs Inputs Person Comparison other Equity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs 19

23 Strategies for Resolution of Inequity
Alter the person’s outcomes Alter the person’s inputs Alter the comparison other’s outputs Alter the comparison other’s inputs Change who is used as a comparison other Rationalize the inequity Leave the organizational situation 7 7 7 3 20 7

24 New Perspectives on Equity Theory
Equity Sensitive I prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other 21

25 New Perspectives on Equity Theory
I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison other Benevolent 22

26 New Perspectives on Equity Theory
Entitled I am comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of my comparison other 23

27 Equity Theory and Justice
Equity Theory Involves a Perception of Distributive Justice Distributive Justice Perceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes. Procedural Justice Perceived fairness of the procedures used to make decisions about the distribution of outcomes (NOT distribution of outcomes) Greenberg 2008 SIOP Conference Procedural justice can substitute for distributive justice One type of justice is not necessarily more important than the other…but one must be present.

28 Thanks to Allah

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