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Defining Organizational Behavior

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1 Defining Organizational Behavior
The field of organizational behavior traces its roots back to the late 1940s when researchers in psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and other social sciences joined together in an effort to develop a comprehensive body of organizational research It is now divided into three distinct subfields

2 What is Organizational Behavior?
Organizational Behavior is the study of human behavior in the workplace, the interaction (cooperate ,work together ) between people and the organization with the intent (aim,goal,target) to understand and predict (expect) human behavior.

3 Organizational Behavior and Organizational Theory
Organizational behavior and organizational theory specialize in studying organizations Organizational behavior: understanding behavior, attitudes, and performance Organizational theory: design and structure of organizations

4 Organizational Behavior
Definition: The study of human behavior, attitudes, and performance in organizations. Value of OB: Helps people attain the competencies needed to become effective employees, team leaders/members, or managers Competency = an interrelated set of abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge needed by an individual to be effective in most professional and managerial positions

5 Organizational Behavior
The field that seeks increased knowledge of all aspects of behavior in organizational settings through the use of the scientific method. Characteristics of the field: OB applies the scientific method to practical managerial problems. OB focuses on three levels of analysis. OB is multidisciplinary in nature. OB seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and the quality of life at work.

6 OB is not Human Resources Management (HRM)
HRM is an organizational function responsible for staffing issues OB is not a function, it is a set of organization-wide processes

7 Micro level & Macro level OB
Micro Level OB Individual, Interpersonal and Group Behaviors Macro Level OB How human systems and organized, structured and controlled Also called organizational theory

8 Micro Organizational Behavior
Micro organizational behavior is concerned mainly with the behaviors of individuals working alone Three subfields of psychology were the principal contributors to the beginnings of micro organizational behavior: Experimental psychology: provided theories of learning, motivation, perception, and stress Clinical psychology: furnished models of personality and human development Industrial psychology: offered theories of employee selection, workplace attitudes, and performance assessment

9 Meso Organizational Behavior
Meso organizational behavior is a middle ground, bridging the other two subfields of organizational behavior It focuses primarily on understanding the behaviors of people working together in teams or groups In addition to sharing the origins of the other two subfields, meso organizational behavior grew out of research in the fields of communication, social psychology, and interactionist sociology

10 Macro Organizational Behavior
Macro organizational behavior focuses on understanding the behaviors of entire organizations The origins of macro organizational behavior can be traced to four disciplines: Sociology: provided theories of structure, social status, and institutional relations Political science: offered theories of power, conflict, bargaining, and control Anthropology: contributed theories of symbolism, cultural influence, and comparative analysis Economics: furnished theories of competition and efficiency

11 Why Study Organizational Behavior?
Success isn’t a destination – it’s a process. And the margin between successes is often small. Learn the principles of defining and achieving success in your own life and begin the journey today. This journey begins with understanding the behaviors between the leader, the followers, and the organization. This is also a leadership course of study. To be successful leader, one needs to understand the behaviors of people, organizations, and the situation.

12 Why Study Organizational Behavior and its History?
Leadership and administration means working with and through other people to achieve organizational goals. A major cause of failure by principals is not having a theory of practice. Only by knowing the contributions of those who came before us, can we prepare ourselves for making strategic and tactical decisions to undergrid our leadership. Copyright (c) Allyn & Bacon 2007 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

13 Organizational Behavior
Does organizational behavior (OB) require a systematic study ? Many people think OB is just common sense. Some would add OB is just intuition.

14 Intuition versus Common Sense
Common Sense Defined The unreflective opinion of ordinary men and women, unsophisticated judgment. Intuition Defined A feeling not necessarily supported by research.

15 Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
Psychology Sociology Social Psychology Anthropology Political Science This material is found in more detail on pages 15-16 Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and other animals. Sociology: Whereas psychologists focus on the individual, sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; that is, sociology studies people in relation to other human beings. Social psychology is an area within psychology, but it blends concepts from psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of people on one another. One of the major areas receiving considerable investigation from social psychologists has been change--how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. processes. Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments, for instance, has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behaviour between people in different countries and within different organizations. Political science studies the behaviour of individuals and groups within a political environment. Specific topics of concern include structuring of conflict, allocation of power, and the manipulation of power for individual self-interest.

16 Key concept of OB

17 Organizational Behavior
Key concepts promotes employee effectiveness through understanding of individual, group, and organizational processes stresses relationships among employees/managers assumes employees want to work and can control themselves Contributions increased participation, greater autonomy, individual challenge and initiative, and enriched jobs may increase participation recognized the importance of developing human resources Limitations some approaches ignored situational factors, such as the environment and technology

KEY ELEMENTS IN ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR * People join together in an organization to accomplish an objective, some kind of structure is required. * People use technology to help get the job done, so there is an interaction. * These elements are influenced by external environment and they influenced it.

19 Organizations and OB What is changing that requires a more systematic study? Organizations Diversity Global competition Technology’s influence on behavior Society – social changes

20 Organizational Behavior
Human behavior depends on contingencies. Behavior can be predicted, but you have to understand the circumstances. Understanding circumstances and predicting behavior require a systematic study.

21 Basic OB Model Independent Variables Dependent Variables

22 Basic OB Model

23 The Dependent Variables
y x

24 The Dependent Variables (cont’d)

25 The Dependent Variables (cont’d)

26 The Dependent Variables (cont’d)

27 Contemporary Issues The three subfields of organizational behavior offers valuable information, insight, and advice to managers facing the challenge of understanding and reacting to a broad range of contemporary management issues Today’s managers find four of these issues especially important

28 Contemporary Issues Workforce Diversity Team Productivity
Organizational Adaptability International Growth and Development

29 Contemporary Issues: Workforce Diversity
Within the societal cultures of the United States and Canada, subcultural differences once ignored by many managers now command significant attention and sensitivity Historically, the North American workforce has consisted primarily of white males; however today white males make up only about 15% of business new hires in the U.S., whereas women, African American, Hispanic, and Asian men account for increasingly large segments of the U.S. workforce Knowledge about the workplace consequences of these differences, drawn from the subfield of micro organizational behavior, can provide managers with help in this regard

30 Contemporary Issues: Team Productivity
Management is becoming less of a process relying on top-down command and control For various reasons organizations now use greater amounts of empowerment Often empowerment is accomplished by grouping employees into teams, then giving those teams responsibility for self-management activities Guidance from the meso organizational behavior precepts can help managers establish realistic expectations about the implementation difficulties and probable effects of team-based empowerment

31 Contemporary Issues: Organizational Adaptability
In today’s business world, emphasis is shifting from mass production of low-cost, interchangeable commodities to the production of high-quality goods and services, made individually or in small batches and geared to meet the specific demands of small groups of consumers Companies are reacting by implementing programs that require new ways of dividing an organization’s work into jobs and coordinating the efforts of many employees Implementations of this sort benefit from insights derived from macro organizational behavior6

32 Contemporary Issues: International Growth and Development
Fewer firms today limit their operations to a single national or cultural region than was once the case Multinationalism or even statelessness has become the norm The resulting globalization is changing the way business is conducted and it promises to continue to do so at an increasing pace All three subfields of organizational behavior have valuable advice to offer managers confronted with this challenge

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