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The Protestant Revolt of the Netherlands

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1 The Protestant Revolt of the Netherlands
Netherlands vs. Spain And Phillip II

2 Abdication of Charles V HRE
CV stepped down in 1556 after the Peace of Augsburg Relinquished all titles, including HRE, King of Spain, the 17 provinces of the Netherlands and the Free County of Burgundy

3 Ferdinand I, brother of CV
CV left Austria, Bohemia and Hungary to his brother Ferdinand I Subsequently Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor


5 Phillip II, son of CV Inherited Spain, 17 provinces of the Netherlands, and Free County of Burgundy Reigned from


7 The Ambition of Phillip II
Phillip was first and foremost a Catholic His Palace, the Escorial was built in the shape of a grill in honor of St. Lawrence who had been martyred in that fashion. He took it upon himself to head up a Catholic counter offensive to the Protestant Reformation Spain could fund such an attack with the riches from the new world; Potosi, Peru.

8 Thoughtful Question Why did the Netherlands revolt against Phillip II and not his father Phillip II? Charles V was from Flanders, which is in the region of the Netherlands-he was one of them. Phillip was thought of as a foreign King, a Spaniard who lived in Spain. After 1560 Spanish officials and troops were seen more frequently in the Netherlands Also after 1560 many Calvinists fled to the Netherlands to escape the religious wars in France.

9 Political and religious revolt
The revolt began n 1566 when 200 nobles of the various 17 provinces founded a league to check the “foreign” influence in the Netherlands. The league consisted of both Catholics AND Calvinists-they asked Phillip not to send the inquisition to the Netherlands Phillips agents refused the petition


11 Revolt begins 1566 With the petition denied a mass revolt broke out
The Calvinist faction destroyed some 400 Catholic Churches Many of the Nobles that had signed the original petition were disgusted with the violence

12 Council of Troubles (blood)
Phillip II, appalled by sacrilege sent in the inquisition, Spanish troops and the Duke of Alva Alva’s Council sentenced thousands to death, confiscated Nobles estates-both Catholic and Calvinist Duke of Alva

13 By 1576, representatives of all 17 provinces formed a union to drive out the Spanish
What error did the Spanish make that led to this Netherland wide revolt? Do you think the English will get involved? If so, why?

14 Yes, England did get involved
English feared the Spanish movement into the Netherlands-”the pistol pointed at the heart of England” England’s involvement was evolutionary


16 Elizabeth I QEI had lent money to the Netherlands from the very beginning-but secretly She did not want to provoke war with Spain QEI had problems at home and she was not event sure if her own subjects would support her Duke of Norfolk Mary, Queen of Scots The security of Elizabethan Protestant England rested on the outcome of the fighting in the Netherlands

17 The Prince of Parma IN 1578 Alexander Farnese, the Prince of Parma became the Spanish General of the Netherlands Rallied the southern 10 provinces to his side The 7 northern provinces, led by Holland, formed the Union of Utrecht in 1579


19 Spain to Antwerp When Parma moved his troops onto Antwerp, QEI openly entered the war Spain now believed that the Netherlands could only be subdued by defeating England The Queen of the “heretics” must be dethroned Phillip II prepared to invade England

20 Spanish Armada 1588 As Phillip prepared to invade the English Parliament called for the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots The Spanish Armada was unsuccessful English led by Sir Francis Drake The Protestant wind

21 Results of the Struggle
English assured their national independence They became more solidly Protestant With the defeat of the Spanish Armada, the English were more free to take to the sea 17 provinces officially broken into Spanish Netherlands and the Dutch Netherlands (Holland)

22 French Wars of Religion
France had remained a predominantly catholic Country of a population of 16 million, 1.2 million were Calvinist Conflict between Huguenots and Catholics Religion + politics (Nobles chose Calvinism to separate from King) Henry II died in tournament

23 French Civil war cont. Henry’s teenage sons (Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III) dominated by Catherine de’ Medici Open warfare between Catholics and Huguenots broke out in 1562. The Guise family led the catholic cause The Bourbon family led the Hueguenots

24 St. Bartholomew day massacre
August 24,1572 Catherine ordered the massacre of the Huguenots Henry of Navarre 1589 “Paris is worth a Mass” Edict of Nantes 1598

25 30 years war 1618-1648 Origin of the Conflict
Peace of Augsburg brought temporary truce in the religious conflict in the German States-only included Lutherans and Catholics, not Calvinists

26 Bohemian Phase 1618-1625 Ferdinand II of Styria Calvinist revolt
Defenestration of Prague Frederick V Elector of Palantine Battle of white mountain Frederick V the winter KIng

27 Danish Phase 1625-1629 Christian IV Protestant ruler of Denmark
Albert of Wallenstein Edict of Restitution 1629

28 Swedish period Gustavus Adolphus Treaty of Prague 1635

29 French Period Cardinal Richilieu

30 Peace of Westphalia 1648 Sweden, Prussia and France all gained territory Formally recognized the independence of the Dutch republic Added calvinism to Peace of augsburg

31 Treaty of Pyrenees 1659 Ended fighting between France and Spain

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