10 AEROBIC FITNESSYou can exercise for longer without feeling tired
11 AEROBIC FITNESSYou can use up more oxygen when you’re exercising
12 AEROBIC FITNESS ADVANTAGES Your heart rate will be lower when resting and when exercising
13 AEROBIC FITNESS DISADVANTAGES Sprinting speed may be reduced due to reduced efficiency of fast twitch fibres
14 provides energy for short explosive activities ANAEROBIC FITNESSAdvantagesprovides energy for short explosive activities
15 Production of lactic acid causing pain ANAEROBIC FITNESSDisadvantagesProduction of lactic acid causing pain
16 Weight training Improves muscle strength and tone AdvantagesCreates muscle overload safely and gradually.Can use free weight or specialist machines to target specific musclesIndividual training programmes can be designedDisadvantagesNeed to work with partner when using free standing weightsIncreased risk of injury from lifting a weight that is too heavy
17 CIRCUIT TRAINING Circuit Training is an adaptable form of training. A variety of exercises and skills are done at different locations in a gym, hall or even outdoors.Each activity is known as a station.
18 CIRCUIT TRAINING Advantages Disadvantages Can be designed to suit any activityIndividual pace can be setCan be set up almost anywhereLess boring because all exercises are differentCan accommodate a large number of people in a small area.DisadvantagesCan take time to set upPeople can get in each others way if circuit is busy
19 Disadvantages Advantages INTERVAL TRAINING Alternating short near maximum bursts of speed with times of rest /mild exerciseDisadvantagesHard to keep goingCan be boringAdvantagesCan mix aerobic and anaerobic exerciseEasy to see when an athlete isn’t trying
20 FARTLEK TRAINING Changes in intensity and type of exercise without stopping AdvantagesGood for sports that need different paces like football and basketballEasily changed to suit an individual or a particular sportDisadvantagesDifficult to see how hard the person is trainingToo easy to skip the hard bits if you can’t be bothered
21 ALTITUDE TRAININGWorking at high altitudes there is a drop in aerobic performance due to lack of oxygen. So if you train at high altitude the body systems compensate by manufacturing more red blood cells.At least 4 weeks acclimatisation is needed to stabilise performance at altitude
22 CONTINUOUS TRAINING Involves exercising at a constant rate doing activities like running or cycling/ no restingAdvantagesNeeds only a small amount of easy to use equipmentGood for aerobic fitness and using up body fatDisadvantagesCan be really boringDoesn’t improve sprinting so not ideal for many games
23 MUSCULAR ENDURANCEAbility of a muscle or muscle group to keep working for long periods with out tiringEvents – long distance running/ cyclingMeans of improving – lots of repetitions for whichever muscle group you want to improve. e.g.sit-ups, chin-ups, dips, press-ups
24 STRENGTHStatic – maximum force a muscle group can apply to an immovable object / rugby scrumExplosive –to exert force in one very short but fast movement e.g. shot put/high jumpDynamic – to apply force repeatedly over a long time / useful for doing loads of press-ups or cycling
25 FLEXIBILITYTo improve it you need to move the joint past where it would normally go.Active Stretching – you do the work, slowly and gently stretch a little further than normalPassive Stretching – a partner or coach does the work , tell them straight away if you feel any painTO INCREASE RANGE OF MOVEMENT HOLD STRETCH FOR 30 SEC. FOR 6 – 8 REPS
26 Link between flexibility and strength Strength training can have negative effect on flexibility.As muscles bulk flexibility can decreaseTherefore flexibility training must be done to counteract this
27 PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS Illnesses or Medical Conditions –colds can make you short of breath, effect your concentration, make you weakAsthma – affects breathingStaleness – Poor form or staleness can be caused by over doing things like exercising without enough breaks
28 PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS Fatigue – The state of being physically tired, when your body hasn’t had time to recover from exercise – performance can be affectedLack of sleep – without enough sleep you lose strength and concentration more quicklyMenstruation – women seem to perform better at certain stages of the menstrual cycle
29 Short term effects SMOKING Causes nose throat and chest irritations Bad breath, loss of taste and appetiteLonger recovery rate
30 SMOKING Long term effects Shortness of breath, reduced lung capacity and oxygen carrying capacity due to carbon monoxide being absorbedIncreases the risk of developing heart disease, bronchitis and other diseasesIncreases risk of cancer of mouth, throat and lungs
31 ALCOHOL Short term effects Reduced co-ordination/balance/ judgement / visionSlower reaction timeStomach irritation / vomitingHeadache, increased blood flow, blood pressure
32 ALCOHOL Long term effects Weight gain, kidney problems, cirrhosis of the liverDepression, brain damageStomach ulcersHeart disease / hardening of the arteries
33 DRUGSA drug is a chemical substance that affects the body systems
34 DRUGS S – STIMULANTS N – NARCOTIC ANALGESTICS A – ANABOLIC AGENTS P – PEPTIDE HORMONESD - DIURETICS
35 Stimulants – improves reactions and reflexes and reduces pain DRUGSStimulants – improves reactions and reflexes and reduces painBUTFeeling less pain can make an athlete train too hard, can lead to high blood pressure, heart and liver problems and strokes
36 Narcotic Analgestics – kill pain and tiredness. Mask injury DRUGSNarcotic Analgestics – kill pain and tiredness. Mask injuryBUTthey are addictive with unpleasant withdrawalFeeling less pain can make an athlete train too hard.Can lead to constipation and low blood pressure.
37 DRUGS Anabolic Agents (STEROIDS) – Increase muscle size delay fatigue , therefore you can train for longerCan cause high blood pressure, heart disease infertility and cancerWomen may grow facial and body hair and their voice may deepen
38 DRUGSDiuretics – make you urinate causing weight loss important if you are competing in a certain weight divisionCan hide traces of other drugs in the bodyBUTThey can cause cramp and dehydration
39 DRUGS Peptide Hormones Most have a similar effect to anabolic steroids EPO (Erythropoietin) has a similar effect to blood dopingBUTThey can cause strokes and abnormal growth
40 DRUGSBeta Blockers – Medicines that lower the heart rate , steady shaking hands and reduce anxietyBUTThey are banned in sports where they might give an advantage such as shooting, ski-jumping, snooker and bobsleigh
41 DRUGSBlood doping -used to simulate high altitude training without actually going to high altitudeRed blood cells are taken out of an athlete – their body then makes more red blood cells to replace themBefore a competition the red blood cells are injected back so that more oxygen can be carried around the bodyPossible side effects – allergic reactions, kidney damage, viruses such as aids and blocked capillaries
43 ENDOMORPHDUMPYWide hips, lots of fat on body arms and legs but ankles and wrists are relatively slimSports – Sumo wrestler need strength, weight and low centre of gravity so they have strong endomorph and mesomorph features
44 MESOMORPH Muscular Broad shoulders, narrow hips, low body fat. Mesomorphs are suited to events like decathlon, swimming, gymnastics.Swimming – broad shoulders and good muscles with little body fat will help them move through the water more efficiently. Strong powerful legs to kick and arm to pull will increase speed of swimmer
45 ECTOMORPHThinNarrow shoulders, not much muscle or fat, long and thin arms and legs, thin face and high forehead.High jumpers need to be tall and light but with powerful muscles so a mixture of ectomorph and mesomorphic features is required.Longer legs gives them advantage in jumping, little weight, less to lift
46 AGE Young age – body still developing Performance alters as we progress through the ageing processYoung age – body still developingBones and ligaments and tendons not fully formed therefore too much training could cause damage or overuse injuriesYoung players have lots of energy and enthusiasm but lack concentration and skill is not as fully developed as an older player
47 AGE Middle – we peak in our twenties You achieve your maximum strength when you are fully grown usually about 20In your 20’s it is still easy to build muscle massYou have more experience that younger playersYou will be able to train for longer and have good oxygen capacity which will help aerobic fitness
48 AGEOlder PlayersAs we get older eyesight deteriorates and reaction time becomes slower.Bones become fragile and joints stiffen more prone to injuryFactors affecting performance with ageing are endurance, speed, flexibility, timing, co-ordination and skill level.Experience is a vital and an older player has gained more experience.Keeping fit will slow down the process of ageing
50 PERSONALITIES Introvert Quiet, shy, retiring Individual sports – Routine and repetitive – swimmingLike to perform precise and intricate skillsDo not enjoy contact sports
51 PERSONALITIES Extrovert Outgoing, loud and lively Team sports – hockey Enjoy lots of excitmentEnjoy fast sport with lots of involvementHigh levels of excitement – ski-ing
52 AGGRESSION Positive Can be positive and negative Controlled aggression is necessary in most sports, particularly in games such as rugby, or batting and bowling in cricket.A bowler may show aggression in bowling bouncers.In athletics there may be aggression in the run up to the long jump. The expression of ‘attacking ‘the board is often used.
53 AGGRESSION Negative However aggression must be controlled. When sportsmen and women lose this control it can often lead to foul play.Common in invasion games as well as games such as tennis where racket abuse sometimes occurs.
54 FEEDBACK Knowledge of performance or Internal feedback. When we learn new skills we require some information to tell us what we are doing and whether it is correct or not.If we obtain this information from our feelings of the actions the feedback to the brain is calledKnowledge of performanceor Internal feedback.
55 FEEDBACK Knowledge of Results or External Feedback If the performer receives information from a coach the feedback is calledKnowledge of Resultsor External Feedback
56 FEEDBACK Types of practice To learn a new skill or improve an existing one you must practice.Part Method – one way to learn a complex skill is to learn parts of it ,then put the parts together, e.g. when learning how to do the triple jump.Whole Method – sometimes the skill cannot be broken down e.g. when learning how to do a somersaultMassed Practice – continual practice repeating the action over and over again, for example when learning to shoot or passing skills
57 FEEDBACKGuidanceVisual Guidance – Learn by watching a demonstration of the skill, looking at a picture or watching a video.Verbal Guidance – Learn by listening to instructionsManual Guidance – Learn by being helped with the support of a coach, by holding the performer in correct position or with mechanical device such as rig in trampolining
58 SKILLSOpen skill – When a performer has to adapt to the changing situation or the environmente.g. invasion games such as rugby and netballClosed skill- When skills are performed in isolation without a changing environmente.g. diving, tennis serve, vault in gymnastics
59 Technological Developments New materials and new designs of equipment have had a considerable impact on sportClothing – new materials and designs for one-piece suits for swimming, speed skating and athletics have contributed to improved performance times in these and similar events.
60 Technological Developments Footwear – sports companies spend considerable amounts of money developing different types of footwear, not just to improve sportsmen’s and womens performance but also to maintain sales in the fashion and recreational market.
61 Technological Developments Facilities – New facilities now enable events to take place which would previosly have had to be cancelled because of weather conditions.e.g. The Millenium Stadium in Cardiff with a retractable roof allows football, rugby and cricket to take place irrespective of bad weather.
62 Technological Developments Sports surfaces – New Surfaces such as plastic grass have revolutionised the way hockey is played. Artificial cricket wickets are popular in schools as they require considerably less maintainance than traditional grass wickets.Times and distances have improved in Athletics with the introduction of rubberised surfaces and soft landing areas for high jump and pole vault
63 Technological Developments Teaching and Coaching – video recording of a sport is useful for the coach and the performer to analyse technique and make comparisons with top class performers.Refereeing – Video replay is now used in a number of sports to help the referee make decisions
64 Technological Developments In swimming and athletics -electronic starting, timing and the use of photo finishing help officials make the correct decisionsIn tennis - the electronic eye can be used to detect whether a service is in
65 Technological Developments Spectators – at the back of large stadium, spectators have little chance of seeing the action.However large video screens show replays and miniature cameras in cricket stumps give spectators a taste of what batsmen expect from fast bowlers.
66 RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID Strain – these occur in the muscles or tendonsThey are overstretched or possibly tornCause- by sudden or violent movement, lifting heavy objects with poor techniqueTreatment – R.I.C.E.
67 RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID Sprain – this occurs at a jointThe tissues and ligaments are stretched and sometimes torn.This may be minor like a twisted ankle or major where severs and extensive damage has been causedCause – twisted or suddenly wrenching the joint as a result of running on uneven ground, being tackled in rugby/football or landing awkwardlyTreatment – R.I.C.E.
68 RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID DISLOCATIONThis occurs when one or more bones as been displaced at a joint usually as a result of a strong force.The bones have been wrenched into an abnormal position.Treatment – call an ambulance and make the casualty as comfortable as possible
69 RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID RICERest injured part – stop sport if you carry on you will make injury worseIce – Apply ice to injured part – this makes blood vessels contract to reduce internal swelling and bleedingCompression – Bandage injured part will help to reduce swelling.Elevation – Support limb at a raised level i.e. above heart level. The flow of blood reduces because it has to flow against gravity.
70 Recognition of Fractures Fractures are cracks in the bone or an actual break.They are usually accompanied by swellingThis is because they damage blood vessels in or around the bone.In an open fracture the skin is torn and the bone pokes out.In a closed fracture it all happens under the skin. The skin itself is alright
71 Stress FracturesA stress fracture is a crack along a length of a bone.It is caused by continuous stress over a long period of timeLong-distance runners get stress fractures called shin splints
72 Recognition of symptoms of Concussion Unconsciousness, disorientation, memory loss.Caused by a blow to the headTreatment If unconscious place in recovery position and get ambulanceIf conscious keep casualty under observation for 24 hours
73 Recognition of symptoms of Hypothermia Symptoms – Body temperature falls below 35 degrees CMuscles go rigid, heart beats irregularly, casualty may fall unconsciousTreatment – steadily raise body temperature to 37 degrees CPut them into warm dry clothing or wrap in a blanketGive hot drinks or maybe a hot bath.