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President of Manifest Destiny: James K. Polk

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1 President of Manifest Destiny: James K. Polk
AP United States History Mrs. D’Errico

2 “American Progress” by John Gast
Manifest Destiny “American Progress” by John Gast

3 “Manifest Destiny” First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.

4 Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860
New intellectual and religious movements. Social reforms. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. Increase in federal power  Marshall Ct. decisions. Increase in American nationalism. Further westward expansion.

5 Areas of Expansion

6 Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836
Sam Houston ( ) Steven Austin ( )

7 The Republic of Texas

8 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo

9 James K. Polk: Early Background
B in Mecklenburg, North Carolina, but was raised in Tennessee Lawyer in Tennessee. Became staunch Jacksonian Democrat Served as U.S. Congressmen from Tennessee, Speaker of the House, and Governor of Tennessee Lost reelection to Governorship 2 times!!

10 Election of 1844 Democrats James K. Polk (Tenn.) Whigs Henry Clay (KY)
Ran on Expansion Platform, promised to lower Protective Tariffs Opposed immediate annexation of Texas, alienated immigrants because of Nativist element of Whig Party “54º40` or Fight”

11 Election Results

12 Polk as President Mexican American War Acquisition of California
Built up naval presence in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Pacific Ordered General Zachary Taylor to the border between Texas and Mexico Offered to buy territory for $25 Million Tried to foment a rebellion by Californians against the Mexican government Mexican American War Border dispute between the Neuces and Rio Grande Rivers “Mr. Polk’s War” Mexico had “Shed American Blood on American Soil

13 The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869

14 The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight!
By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 1846.

15 The Bear Flag Republic The Revolt  June 14, 1845 John C. Frémont

16 The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845
Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would California at any price. John Slidell

17 Argument over annexation
Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Voted on purely along sectional lines The issue over the expansion of slavery is becoming ever more precarious Pro Slavery Argument claimed that new territory should be open to slavery along the Missouri Compromise lines, or through popular sovereignty


19 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
February 2, 1848 Mexico gave up vast amount of territory to the United States: Texas to the Rio Grande, California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. The US paid $15 million for the land

20 Results of the Mexican War?
The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease). New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX) These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. Manifest Destiny partially realized.

21 Your task: Read the following documents that come from a variety of historical sources and viewpoints regarding expansion. Complete the chart stating the reasons for expansion of the nation versus the arguments against expanding the country to the pacific.

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