Presentation on theme: "Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus. Definition: -Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects."— Presentation transcript:
Definition: -Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. - Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders with common features, of which a raised blood glucose is the most evident. Blood glucose levels: Normal blood glucose level Fasting blood glucose <7 mmols or <126 mg/100 ml..
Essential features of the (ADA) recommendations for diabetes (in non-pregnant adults) and the previous WHO recommendations Previous WHO recommendationsProvisional ADA recommendations Based on clinical stages General: Based on clinical stages Same -FPG >7.8 mmol/l (>140 mg) or -2 h PG > 11.1 mmol/l (>200 mg) an OGTT Diabetes: -Symptoms of diabetes plus casual PG >11.1 mmol/l or - FPG >7.0 mmol/l (>126 mg) or -2 h PG >11.1 mmol/l (>200 mg) an OGTT with 75 gm Any of the above need to be confirmed on a subsequent day for the diagnosis to be made.
Essential features of the (ADA) recommendations for diabetes (in non-pregnant adults) and the previous WHO recommendations (cont.) Previous WHO recommendationsProvisional ADA recommendations SameImpaired glucose tolerance (IGT): 2 h PG >7.8 mmol/l (140) but <11.1 mmol/l (<200 mg) Not previously recognizedImpaired fasting glucose (IFG): FPG >6.1 mmol/l (>110 mg) and <7.0 mmol/l (<126 mg)
Prevalence of NIDDM in certain countries CountryPrevalence (ADA criteria, >20 years old) United States9.6% Pima Indians50-70% Native Indians, Canada19% England7.1% Turkey7.2% China9.8% Poland15.7% India8.6% Oman14% Jordan12.7% United Arab Emirates18.3%
National data on prevalence of NIDDM 1995 2000 2004 -Sareeh, Sikhra, South Mazar, & Sabha13.4% -Gefgefa6% -Housha & Ramon14.2 - Sareeh12.7%16.1%
Factors associated with NIDDM VariableOdds Ratio (OR)p-value Gender (M vs. F)2.0 <.001 Age(>40 vs. <40 Y)12.7 <.001 Family History DM (Y vs. N)2.5 <.001 High cholesterol (Y vs. N)1.6 <.001 High triglycerides (Y vs. N)2.1 <.001 Hypertension (Y vs. N)1.6 <.01 Body mass index (obese vs. non-obese) NS (obese& overweight vs. non-obese)*1.9 <.01 Smoking NS -------------- Source: Ajlouni et.al.: Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors. J Internal Medicine, 1998, 244; 317-323. * Further analysis of data.
Frequency distribution of certain CVD risk factors by diabetic status Among Jordanian adults. VariableNIDDMGeneral population High cholesterol 44.8% 30.2% High triglycerides 45% 26.2% Hypertension (130/85)74.9% 39% Obese & overweight88.9% 83.2% Smoking13.9% 15.5% -------------- Source: Ajlouni et.al.: Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors. J Internal Medicine, 1998, 244; 317-323.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) an autoimmune disease resulting in the destruction of insulin producing cells. autoimmune diabetes, growth-onset diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, ketoacidosis-prone diabetes, ketosis-prone diabetes, type I diabetesautoimmune diabetesgrowth-onset diabetesinsulin-dependent diabetes mellitusjuvenile diabetesjuvenile-onset diabetesketoacidosis-prone diabetes ketosis-prone diabetestype I diabetes
Incidence of Type 1 diabetes in Jordan 1992-1996 (cases per 100,000 per year) among children age 0-4 years by year of diagnosis and gender. Year of diagnosisPopulationCasesMalesFemalesIncidence 1996 1,845,9586634 323.6 1995 1,774,9606434 303.6 19941,703,962 5528 273.2 19931,635,8644722 252.9 19921,570,3724322 212.8 -------------- Source: Ajlouni et.al.: Incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Jordanian children aged 0-4 during 1992- 1996. Acta paediar suppl 427:11-3. 1999.
Gestational diabetes mellitus Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy
Approximately, 135,000 cases of GDM, representing on average 3- 8% of all pregnancies, are diagnosed annually in the US. Higher incidence of GDM has been reported in ethnic groups that have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes; figures approaching 20% have been reported in certain ethnic populations. GDM complicates 2%-5% of pregnancies in North America health settings which is more than 10 times as common as pre-gestational diabetes. Complications include: - maternal hypertension, - preeclampsia, - postpartum DM, - infant macrosomia, - hyperbilirubinemia, - congenital abnormalities, - stillbirth, - traumatic delivery, - infant perinatal death
Epidemiology of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors among attendants of antenatal services at Al Corniche maternity hospital, Abu Dhabi City, UAE. Study design At her first visit each singleton, non-diabetic pregnant, and at gestational age between 24-32 weeks is included in the study if she satisfies one of the following criteria: 1.has a positive family history of diabetes mellitus 2. has a personal history of GDM. 3. has a body mass index more than 27. Women with abnormal FBS were treated as diabetic patients without being subjected to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Only women with normal FBS were subjected to OGTT. OGTT was performed by measuring plasma glucose level at fasting and 2-hours post 75 gm of oral glucose loading.
Patient is defined as having impaired GTT when FBS is <7.8 mmols/liter and a 2-hours plasma glucose level between 7.8mmols/liter and 11 mmols/liter. The patient was defined as diabetic when FBS >7.8mmols/liter or 2- hours plasma glucose >11.1mmols/liter. Pregnants with FBS >7.8 mmols/liter or 2-hours plasma glucose >11.1 mmols/liter are defined as having GDM. Results: GDM prevalence was 15.9%
Primary prevention and early detection of type 2 diabetes When looking for the opportunity to prevent type 2 diabetes, risk determinants can be viewed in terms of being either modifiable or non-modifiable. Modifiable risk factors Overweight & obesity Sedentary lifestyle Dietary factors Tobacco smoking Previously identified glucose intolerance (IFG & IGT)
Non-modifiable risk factors Age Sex Family history type 2 diabetes Genes/genetic markers Previous gestational diabetes Ethnicity
1.Primary Prevention: Life-style modifications in nutrition, physical activity and weight reduction help delay the development of Type II Diabetes in individuals at risk may be recommended for the general population. The incidence of diabetes is more likely increased in smokers. PIC-Norfolk, a UK cohort of 24,155 participants aged 40-79 years, the authors assessed the association between achievement of five diabetes healthy behavior prevention goals (BMI 4 h/week) and risk of developing diabetes at follow-up (mean 4.6 years). None of the participants who met all five goals developed diabetes, whereas diabetes incidence was highest in those who did not meet any goals. Conclusion: If the entire population were able to meet one more goal, the total incidence of diabetes would be predicted to fall by 20%.
Primary prevention components of the program include: extensive use of the mass media, fiscal and legislative measures, and widespread community, school, and workplace health education activities.