2 Sundiata & Mansa MusaSundiata: of Mande ppl. Founder of Mali Empire- - Griots have been telling the Epic of Sundiata for over 900 years (mix of history & legend)- He took RG & political power from local leaders, mansa’s, and took the name with itMansa Musa: most famous ruler who brought wealth, fame, and power to the kingdom of Ghana- Grandson of one of Sundiata’s sisters (matrilineal tradition)
4 Scene I: 2 pillarsTrade: Conquered nearby kingdoms (weakened Ghana, Timbuktu, Gao,Djenne) took over S & G trade, use of NigerAgriculture: Improved and introduced new crops; cotton used for clothing & tradeSlaves from conquered areas worked the land, soldiers worked alongside them to clear farm landSundiata first est. this system and Mansa Musa continued its prosperity
5 Salt slabs on the shores of the Niger river- outskirts of Timbuktu
6 Scene II: Spread of Islam- The Hajj Mansa Musa 1st devout Muslim ruler in W. AfricaIslam spread and several ppl. From Mali made the Hajj to MeccaEst. 60,000-80,000ppl. Accompanied Mansa on his journey to Mecca/Medina in 132412,000 servants to king500 servants to his wife14,000 slaves wearing silk500 carrying staffs
8 Celebration of Eid ul-Fitr on the last day of Ramadan Dogon Country-Mali
9 Scene III: Outside Views of Mali As recently as 1963, a famous British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper said: "Perhaps in the future, there will be some African history to teach. But at present there is none. There is only the history of Europeans in Africa. The rest is darkness.“Mansa Musa’s elaborate journey sparked interest in Mali and many ppl. From Asia, Egypt, and other parts of Africa visited=more trade= more wealth for empireBy 1375 Mali appeared on a European map of West Africa
10 Map from 1375shows King Mansa Musa enthroned in the kingdom of Mali.
11 Scene IV: Mosques & Universities Sent scholars o study in Morocco and set up school in Mali studying the Qur’anWanted Muslims to read/write in ArabicArabic as main language in RG study, government, & tradeHired architects from other Muslim countries to build mosques throughout his empire : Timbuktu & Djenne
13 Founded in 300 CE by Bozo ppl. Market Day in DjenneFounded in 300 CE by Bozo ppl.-Never part of Mali Empire, yet rivaled Timbuktu as a center for Trans-Saharan trade
14 Scene V: African Explorers? Some historians suggest that West Africans traveled to South/Central America and the Caribbean Islands prior to Columbus.
15 Timbuktu: The Legendary city of Gold….. Tuareg nomads from Sahara first est. Timbuktu in 11th century.Once conquered by Mali became an important location as a link between N. and W. Africa.Important center for trade: salt, gold, cloth, sugar, kola nuts, glass beads, and shells, slaves, books…Several mosques were built by Mansa Musa & later rulers=center of Islamic learning
16 Mosques in TimbuktuSankore Mosque- former University & center of learning. Built in 989 C.E.Timbuktu Manuscripts
21 Fall of EmpireWeak leadership: Maghan took over after Mansa Musa’s death, could not stop raiders who set fire to Timbuktu’s great schools & mosquesMali grew too large for gov’t to control, parts began to break away and declare independenceInvaders: Tuareg nomads seized Timbuktu in 1431By 1500’s Mali empire was dismantled