Presentation on theme: "Module 1: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels"— Presentation transcript:
1 Module 1: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels
2 ObjectiveUpon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline, petrodiesel, and biodiesel.
3 Introduction Can be: Domestically produced Renewable Made from new & used plant oils, animal fats, & recycled restaurant grease
4 Introduction Physical properties of biodiesel similar to petrodiesel Reduces greenhouse gas emissions & release of toxic pollutantsBiodegradableAdaptable
5 Commercial Biodiesel Production Plants Copyright National Biodiesel Board, reprinted with permission
6 Biodiesel Production Plants Under Construction or Expansion Copyright National Biodiesel Board, reprinted with permission
7 Uses of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Fuel for vehicles most common useHeating fuel in commercial & domestic boilers:BioheatProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
8 Ethanol Versus Biodiesel Made by combining alcohol with food sugarsUsed in gasoline enginesMiscible with water
9 Ethanol Versus Biodiesel Made by using alcohol to remove glycerin from plant oilsOnly used in diesel enginesImmiscibleProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
10 The Nature of Biodiesel Under some conditions:Biodiesel-blended fuels will retain petroleum-based fuel characteristicsUnder other conditions:May exhibit polar solvent-type characteristicsProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
11 Activity 1.1 — Definitions Purpose:To allow participants to identify the definitions related to biodiesel.
12 Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Similar characteristics whether flammable / combustible liquidsProduced from crude oil by fractional distillationImmiscible / InsolubleFlash point -45°F (-43°C) (depending on octane rating)
13 Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Vapor density between 3 & 4:Gasoline vapors seek low levels / remain close to ground levelSpecific gravity of 0.72–0.76:Will float on top of waterAuto-ignition temperature between 536°F & 853°F (280°C & 456°C)Boiling point between 100°F & 400°F (38°C & 204°C)
14 Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Not considered poisonous:Harmful effects after long-term & high-level exposureCan lead to respiratory failureSmoke from burning gasoline is black & has toxic componentsGreatest hazard is flammability:Fairly narrow range of flammability
15 Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Produced from petroleumProduct of distillation of crude oilAmber in colorImmiscibleHigh boiling point of > 300°F (> 149°C)Property of DOE, reprinted with permission
16 Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Low vapor pressure: 0.40 mmHgFlash point between 100°F & 160°F (38°C & 71°C)Specific gravity between 0.82 & 0.95Vapor density > 1
17 Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Exposure:Irritation to eyesDamage to respiratory systemClass B firesCopyright 2008, TEEX/ESTI
18 Characteristics of Biodiesel Liquid varying in colorImmiscibleHigh boiling point of 360–640°F (182–338°C)Low vapor pressure: < 2 mmHgFlash point 199°F (93°C)
19 Characteristics of Biodiesel Specific gravity between 0.86 & 0.90Vapor density > 1Less hazardous in terms of flammability
20 Activity 1.2 — Comparison of Gasoline, Petrodiesel, and Biodiesel Purpose:To allow participants to discuss the differences & similarities in the chemical & physical properties of biodiesel, petrodiesel, & gasoline.
21 Biodiesel-Blended Fuels Can be used alone / blendedB20: 20% biodieselB99: 99% biodieselB100: pure biodieselProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
22 Biodiesel-Blended Fuels Mixing biodiesel fuels:At the plantSplash mixed in tanker trucksLine-mixed
23 Summary Biodiesel plentiful & nonflammable in natural state Important to know percentage of biodiesel in biodiesel-blended product:Converse relationship between biodiesel level & flammability