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So you want a fish pond or water garden.. Useful Formulas Pond liner sizing: Measure the hole that you have excavated. Add twice the depth plus 2 feet.

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Presentation on theme: "So you want a fish pond or water garden.. Useful Formulas Pond liner sizing: Measure the hole that you have excavated. Add twice the depth plus 2 feet."— Presentation transcript:

1 So you want a fish pond or water garden.

2 Useful Formulas Pond liner sizing: Measure the hole that you have excavated. Add twice the depth plus 2 feet for coping to get the magic number, then add that number to the length or width of the hole to get the liner size needed. Do not exceed 10 of fish per 100 gallons of filtration. Calculate your effective pond volume: - Average depth less than 2 6 add 25%. - Pond located in full sun add 25%. Size your pump to circulate your entire pond in 2 hours (filtration pump) Know your ponds volume in gallons. Length X width X depth X 7.5. then add for effective pond volume above when sizing your filtration but not when adding chemicals. Size your waterfall pump: a minimum of 100 gallons per hour per 1 of weir width. When you decide on a spot for your pond dig the hole before you buy anything! Then use the guides on the next few pages to be sure you have the right setup.

3 Pond Water Balance 1. Balance of plants to fish. More plants and less fish mean less green water problems and cleaner water. 2. Balance of sun to shade. More shade means less algae problems. However, less sum means less blooms on your water plants. 3. Balance of Nitrogen Cycle. (Simplified version) Fish food + Fish waste + Decomposition by fungi and bacteria + Oxidation by more bacteria = nitrates and nitrogen (plant and algae food). Add some sunlight and algae and plants will thrive. Floating plants do double duty to help combat algae as they shade the water and use the nitrogen from the water. 4. Balance of plants to sunshine. Plant coverage should be 60 to 80% of pond surface area. Water Lillys, hyacinths, water lettuce and parrots feather are excellent at shading the water surface. 5. With the exception of Lillys I recommend potting all water plants in soilless media as they will pull all their nutrients from the water. Lillys require soil and fertilizer in order to have good blooms they benefit from fertilizer tablets shoved just near the roots (to keep the fertilizer from the water use a heavy clay soil when planting them.) With proper filtration all the above rules can be broken! 1. The ultraviolet clarifier can correct all the green water problems when properly sized to the pond and pump. 2. The biological and mechanical filter can remove suspended particles and transform fish waste to usable food for your plants. The closer you get to nature the less problems you will have. People often come into the store in a panic after spending an entire day cleaning their pond spotless. The next day the thing turns pea green. Its all about the pond balance. They killed all the beneficial bacteria and ended up with an algae bloom.

4 How to size your pond pump Pump size (gallons per hour) What the pump will do 76-90 1. Small spitter w/ less than 2 hose 2. Table top fountain 3. Small fountain heads 145-200 1. Medium and large spitter w/less than 6 of hose 2. Medium statuary fountain w/less than 4 of lift. 250-650 1. Large fountain heads only. 2. Small biofilter 3. Small waterfall less than 5 wide and less than 1 high. 750-1000 1. Waterfall less than 8 wide and less than 2 high Medium Biofilter. 1200-1800 1. Medium waterfall less than 12 wide and 3 high 2. Large Biofilter. Pump placement. The pump should not be on the bottom of the pond and not right near the water return. Pump placement is important should your plumbing or waterfall leak so as not to drain the entire pond and kill your fish. Spawning fish like a protected area with very little water movement. Keep the plants away from the splash they dont like water on the wrong side of their leaves. Pond pumps come in several configurations. The best is a high efficiency Magnetic drive pump. Less power use but does not pump water up hill very well. (a sprinter.) Pond filter use. The low efficiency pumps cost more to run but can push water up hill better. (a weight lifter.) pond filter or water fall use. Typical sump pumps are often oil filled and not intended for continuous duty operation. Do not use at all!

5 Water Plants Marginal or Bog plants - These are essentially the plants that stick up above the surface of the water and provide height to the pond. They can be planted into waterlogged ground or more commonly into plastic planting baskets, which are then placed into the water. Planting Depth: 6 - 8 inches Floating Plants - These floating plants have extensive root systems that dangle into the water from the surface, these root systems provide ideal spawning areas for fish like goldfish. They often reproduce by budding and as such can be very invasive. In some areas especially the USA they are prohibited by law because of the fact that they can grow so quickly. Planting Depth: Allow to float unplanted on the surface Oxygenators - These are plants that are not very visible, as they are present under the water. But they can fulfill a useful role in the pond. They absorb nutrients, and can help to reduce the growth of algae in the pond. Calling them oxygenators can be a misnomer as although they produce oxygen during the day, they absorb it again at night. Oxygenation is best achieved using a pond pump. Planting Depth: up to 18" Deep Water Plants - These plants have leaves that float on the surface and roots that are firmly placed in containers on the bottom of the pond. Water lilies are generally the best known aquatic plant. They are available in an enormous assortment of varieties and colors. Other plants like lilies are available. Planting Depth: Variable up to 3' Please Note: Big Koi 6 or larger can damage many pond plants.

6 Filtration Gravity out filter. The good-- never restricts the flow of water, clean it when you want to, great biological action, easy to clean. The Bad– hard to hide, must be positioned above the water level of the pond.

7 Pressure filter Pressure out filter The good– Can be mounted anywhere, water leaves the filter under pressure so it can run a waterfall or spitter. The bad– Most restrict the flow of water as they become dirty forcing you to clean them.

8 Water fall and skimmer filters Water fall and skimmer combinations The good- easy to clean helps reduce leaves and other trash from falling to the bottom of the pond The bad- bigger pump more electric use, professional installation recommended. Pump can burn out when starved for water. Waterfall must run non stop. Water fall can leak when debris gets in the stream or waterfall.

9 Submersible Filter The submersible filter Submersible filters are simple in design and ease of use. Toss them in and plug them in and you are done. They can run a spitter or very small waterfall Designed for small ponds less than 700 gallons. The down side is that you have to remove them from the water to clean them.

10 Ultraviolet Clarifier The ultraviolet clarifier. The good--an ultraviolet clarifier kills the green water algae. The badpricy, requires constant electric and water flow. Sized to the total adjusted pond volume. Size the pump to turn over the entire pond once every two hours. If the pump is too small reduced effectiveness. If the pump is too large (pumps water too fast) the algae will not have enough contact with the light and reduced effectiveness if any. In a perfect world the pump, filter, and UV lamp will be sized correctly for your pond and very little maintenance will be required.

11 Stream from filter to pond. To hide the filter we put it behind the fence

12 The stream idea was good but the plants were not. They grew and blocked the stream.

13 Stream runs to old pond from filter. The return pipe is buried in the stream

14 The filter is hidden behind the fence and water returns down the stream

15 The lilly would be happier if the turtle was not shooting water on the leaves. The grasses are great for filtration but will soon overtake the pond

16 Note focal point. Tall stuff as a backdrop.

17 Nice use of hardscaping, focal point, caution about inside of pond design and kids / animals

18 Looks great now but waterfall will soon be a problem when algae and leaves divert the water flow. This is the most common pond loosing water complaint

19 Notice how large the field stone is at the edge of the pond. No worry of freeze and thaw shifting the edge.

20 Smaller fieldstone along the edge will be a problem over the years and is dangerous. The marginal plants will soon hide the waterfall.

21 Great example of focal point and easy to maintain. Easy to clean skimmer. gravel no mulch, good view from the deck, taller plants garden in the back.

22 To avoid box filter a stream runs around the back of the pond. Always running at a slow rate of speed. Fieldstone placement very poor and will be problematic.

23 Notice waterfall in the back, good view and sound form the deck and house.

24 Field stone arranged poorly looks sloppy and dangerous. Use very large pieces along the edge to avoid shifting

25 River rock instead of field stone. Easy to install and maintain, deer resistant, more natural look. Mulch could be a problem.

26 Notice how the liner is lined with large river rock. Safer for kids, pets and deer resistant.

27 Poor design using mulch up hill of the pond. The mulch plus rain water turns the pond like weak tea.

28 Notice the bog plants in the living filter in the back of the pond. Slow water always running through the adjoining bog filters the water.

29 Summary Take your time and do it right the first time. Plan your water garden as you would a perennial garden. Oversize your filter and uv lamp but not your waterfall pump. Read a book.

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