2 The Title of the Study / Research Problem A problem is:(1) any significant, perplexing and challenging situation real or artificial, the solution of which requires reflective thinking;(2) a perplexing situation after it has been translated into a question or series of questions that help determine the direction of subsequent inquiry.
3 Identification of problem is the most fundamental part of research Identification of problem is the most fundamental part of research. Problems are encountered everyday and because of these, researchers are often unable to identify specific subjects of their investigation. Most of these problems involve knowledge and skills.
4 Guidelines in writing the title: Generally, the title is formulated before the start of the research work.It may be revised and refined later if there is a need.The title must contain the subject matter of the study, the locale of the study, the population involved, and the period when the data were gathered or will be gathered.
5 It must be broad enough to include all aspects of the subject matter studied or to be studied. Hence, the title indicates what is expected to be found inside the thesis report.It must be as brief and concise as possible.Avoid using the terms “An Analysis of,” “An Investigation of,” and the like. All these things are understood to have been done or to be done when a research is conducted.
6 If the title contains more than one line, it must be written like an inverted pyramid, all words in capital letters, single space.Although there is no fixed number as to the length of thesis title, it is suggested a maximum of 35 to minimum of 20 words should be used for the tile.All theses titles should be consistent with the curriculum or degree pursued for.
7 All titles must be:Theory-based or concept-based relevant to the researcher’s major field of specializationOriginal or novel and significant in the pursuit of new knowledge; andFeasible and attainable within the time and resources available to researcher.
8 Elements of a Research Problem: The term research problem implies that an investigation, inquiry or study is to be conducted, or that the problem is ready for investigation, inquiry or study.
9 There are certain elements that a problem must possess before it becomes a research problem ready for investigation. These elements are:Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation. This answers the question “Why?” Why is there an investigation, inquiry or study?The subject matter or topic to be investigated. This answers the question “What?” What is to be investigated or studies?”
10 The place or locale where the research is to be conducted The place or locale where the research is to be conducted. This answers the question “Where?” Where is the study to be conducted?The period or time of the study during which the data are to be gathered. This answers the question “When?” When is the study to be carried out?”Population or universe from whom the data are to be collected. This answers the question “Who?” or “from whom?” Who are the respondents? From who are the data to be gathered?”
11 Guidelines in the Selection of a Research Problem or Topic:
12 The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself. This is to avoid blaming or offering excuses for any obstacles encountered.It must be within the interest of the researcher. This is to make sure that the researcher will focus his full attention on the research work.It must be within the specialization of the researcher. This will in some way make the work easier for him because he is working on familiar grounds. Besides, this may improve his specialization, skill, and competence in his profession.
13 It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle. The researcher must know the method of research and other research procedures applicable to his problem and he must know how to apply them. He must have a workable understanding of his study.It must be within the ability of the researcher to finance; otherwise he must be able to find funding for his research.Research involves not a small amount of expense and the researcher must be able to foot the bills until his study is completed. There must be a budget, which he must be able to shoulder.
14 It is researchable and manageable, that is: Data are available and accessible.The data must meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity, and verifiability.Answers to the specific questions (sub-problems) can be found.The hypotheses formulated are testable, that is, they can be accepted or rejected.It can be completed within a reasonable period of time unless it is a longitudinal research, which takes a long time for its completion.
15 It is significant, important, and relevant to the present time and situation, timely, and of current interest.The results are practical and implementable.Equipment and instruments for research are available and can give valid and reliable results.It requires original, critical, and reflective thinking to solve it.It can be delimited to suit the resources of the researcher but big or large enough to be able to give significant, valid, and reliable results and generalizations.
16 It must contribute to the national development goals for the improvement of the quality of human life.It must contribute to the fund of human knowledge.It must show or pave the way for the solution of the problem or problems intended to be solved.It must not undermine the moral and spiritual values of the people.It must not advocate any change in the present order of things by means of violence but by peaceful means.
17 There must be a return of some kind to the researcher, either one or all of the following, if the research report is completed:Monetary, either increase in salary or publication of the results in which there is some kind of royalty.Advancement of position, promotion.Improved specialization, competence, and skill in professional work especially if the research subject is related to the profession.Enhanced prestige and reputation.Satisfaction of intellectual curiosity and interest, and being able to discover truth.There must be a consideration of the hazards involved either, physical, social or legal.
18 The choice of a research topic involves identifying a general subject area, limiting and defining the topic, and stating the topic as a question or hypothesis which summarizes the main idea of the paper. The length of the title is recommended to be at least 12 words. Abbreviations in the title are avoided; acronyms are spelled out for clarity. The title must be clear, descriptive, accurate and comprehensive. Irrelevant words are not included in the title.
19 There are many problems surrounding students in different courses There are many problems surrounding students in different courses. These problems however, may not at all be regarded as research problems, simply because they can be solved by using sound opinions/reasons or thought debate or deliberation. Research problems are issues or concerns that undergraduate students tackle by using systematic inquiry or investigation guided by a methodical process. These are research problems closely related to students’ respective disciplines.
20 It would not be practical for students to work on a topic not of his/her interest or academic experience. It is a common understanding that anyone cannot give what he/she does not have, likewise he cannot explain a thing nor describe it specifically, if he has no personal encounter or experience about it.
21 There are many problems that can be the foci of research for as so long as they require systematic inquiry. The choice of research problem/s must be underscored and they must be identified on the basis of the following: research criteria; potentials and interest of the researcher; relevance; significance; researchability; manageability; and availability of resources.