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Topic 6: Human Physiology

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1 Topic 6: Human Physiology
Fighting the Enemy Within! phagocytic leukocyte Topic 6.3 Defense against the infectious disease lymphocytes attacking cancer cell

2 What’s in your lunchbox?
Why an immune system? Attack from outside lots of organisms want you for lunch! animals are a tasty nutrient- & vitamin-packed meal cells are packages of macromolecules no cell wall traded mobility for susceptibility animals must defend themselves against invaders viruses HIV, flu, cold, measles, chicken pox, SARS bacteria pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis fungi yeast (“Athlete’s foot”…) protists amoeba, Lyme disease, malaria Attack from inside defend against abnormal body cells = cancers Mmmmm, What’s in your lunchbox?

3 Avenues of attack Points of entry Routes of attack digestive system
respiratory system urogenital tract break in skin Routes of attack circulatory system lymph system

4 Lymph system Production & transport of leukocytes
Traps foreign invaders lymph vessels (intertwined amongst blood vessels) lymph node

5 Bacteria & insects inherit resistance. Vertebrates acquire immunity!
Lines of defense 1 1st line: Barriers broad, external defense “walls & moats” skin & mucus membranes 2nd line: Non-specific patrol broad, internal defense “patrolling soldiers” leukocytes = phagocytic WBC macrophages 3rd line: Immune system specific, acquired immunity “elite trained units” lymphocytes & antibodies B cells & T cells Bacteria & insects inherit resistance. Vertebrates acquire immunity!

6 Lines of Defense 2 Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms……

7 1st line: External defense
Physical & chemical defenses non-specific defense external barrier epithelial cells & mucus membranes skin respiratory system digestive system uro-genital tract Lining of trachea: ciliated cells & mucus secreting cells

8 1st line: Chemical barriers on epithelium
Skin & mucous membrane secretions sweat pH 3-5 tears washing action mucus traps microbes saliva anti-bacterial = “lick your wounds” stomach acid pH 2 anti-microbial proteins lysozyme enzyme digests bacterial cell walls

9 2nd line: Internal, broad range patrol
Innate, general defense rapid response Patrolling cells & proteins attack invaders that penetrate body’s outer barriers leukocytes phagocytic white blood cells complement system anti-microbial proteins inflammatory response leukocytes

10 Leukocytes: Phagocytic WBCs
Attracted by chemical signals released by damaged cells enter infected tissue, engulf & ingest microbes lysosomes Neutrophils most abundant WBC (~70%) ~ 3 day lifespan Macrophages “big eater”, long-lived Natural Killer Cells destroy virus-infected cells & cancer cells

11 Phagocytic and Natural Killer Cells
Neutrophils % WBCs; engulf and destroy microbes at infected tissue Monocytes 5% WBCs; develop into…. Macrophages enzymatically destroy microbes Eosinophils % WBCs; destroy large parasitic invaders (blood flukes) Natural killer (NK) cells destroy virus-infected body cells & abnormal cells

12 Phagocytes macrophage yeast

13 Destroying cells gone bad!
Natural Killer Cells perforate cells release perforin protein insert into membrane of target cell forms pore allowing fluid to flow into cell cell ruptures (lysis) apoptosis vesicle natural killer cell perforin cell membrane perforin punctures cell membrane cell membrane virus-infected cell

14 Anti-microbial proteins
Complement system ~20 proteins circulating in blood plasma attack bacterial & fungal cells form a membrane attack complex perforate target cell apoptosis extracellular fluid complement proteins form cellular lesion plasma membrane of invading microbe complement proteins bacterial cell

15 Inflammatory response 1
Damage to tissue triggers local non-specific inflammatory response release histamines & prostaglandins capillaries dilate, more permeable (leaky) increase blood supply delivers WBC, RBC, platelets, clotting factors fight pathogens clot formation accounts for swelling, redness & heat of inflammation & infection

16 Inflammatory response 2
Reaction to tissue damage Pin or splinter Blood clot swelling Bacteria Chemical alarm signals Phagocytes Blood vessel

17 Fever When a local response is not enough
systemic response to infection activated macrophages release interleukin-1 (IL-1) triggers hypothalamus in brain to readjust body thermostat to raise body temperature higher temperature helps defense inhibits bacterial growth stimulates phagocytosis speeds up repair of tissues causes liver & spleen to store iron, reducing blood iron levels bacteria need large amounts of iron to grow Certain bacterial infections can induce an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response leading to a condition known as septic shock. Characterized by high fever and low blood pressure, septic shock is the most common cause of death in U.S. critical care units. Clearly, while local inflammation is an essential step toward healing, widespread inflammation can be devastating.

18 The Inflammatory Response
1- Tissue injury; release of chemical signals~ • histamine (basophils/mast cells): causes Step • prostaglandins: increases blood flow & vessel permeability 2/3- Dilation and increased permeability of capillary~ • chemokines: secreted by blood vessel endothelial cells mediates phagocytotic migration of WBCs 4- Phagocytosis of pathogens~ • fever & pyrogens: leukocyte-released molecules increase body temperature

19 3rd line: Acquired (active) Immunity
Specific defense lymphocytes B lymphocytes (B cells) T lymphocytes (T cells) antibodies immunoglobulins Responds to… antigens specific pathogens specific toxins abnormal body cells (cancer)

20 How are invaders recognized: antigens
proteins that serve as cellular name tags foreign antigens cause response from WBCs viruses, bacteria, protozoa, parasitic worms, fungi, toxins non-pathogens: pollen & transplanted tissue B cells & T cells respond to different antigens B cells recognize intact antigens pathogens in blood & lymph T cells recognize antigen fragments pathogens which have already infected cells “self” “foreign”

21 How are cells tagged with antigens
Major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins antigen glycoproteins MHC I – on all nucleated cells MHC II – on macrophages, B-Ly, activated T-Ly MHC proteins constantly carry bits of cellular material from the cytosol to the cell surface “snapshot” of what is going on inside cell give the surface of cells a unique label or “fingerprint” Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC): body cell surface antigens coded by a family of genes Class I MHC molecules: found on all nucleated cells Class II MHC molecules: found on macrophages, B cells, and activated T cells T cell MHC proteins displaying self-antigens

22 Specific Immunity Lymphocyctes •pluripotent stem cells... • B Cells (bone marrow) • T Cells (thymus) Antibodies: antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells Antigen = a foreign molecule that elicits a response by lymphocytes (virus, bacteria, fungus, protozoa, parasitic worms) Antigen receptors = plasma membrane receptors on B and T cells

23 What else we’ll study? HIV & AIDS
Human Immunodeficiency Virus virus infects helper T cells helper T cells don’t activate rest of immune system: T cells & B cells also destroy T cells Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome infections by opportunistic diseases death usually from other infections pneumonia, cancer T Attack! It’s too late…

24 To defend themselves against invaders!
Animals are a tasty nutrient- & vitamin-packed meal ! To defend themselves against invaders! What’s the point?

25 HIV/AIDS - How to protect yourself…

26 Immune system malfunctions
Auto-immune diseases immune system attacks own molecules & cells lupus antibodies against many molecules released by normal breakdown of cells rheumatoid arthritis antibodies causing damage to cartilage & bone diabetes beta-islet cells of pancreas attacked & destroyed multiple sclerosis T cells attack myelin sheath of brain & spinal cord nerves Allergies over-reaction to environmental antigens allergens = proteins on pollen, dust mites, in animal saliva stimulates release of histamine

27 Key attributes of immune system
4 attributes that characterize the immune system as a whole specificity antigen-antibody specificity diversity react to millions of antigens memory rapid 2° response ability to distinguish self vs. non-self maturation & training process to reduce auto-immune disease

28 It’s safe to Ask Questions!

29 Ghost of Lectures past (storage)
Did I miss a joke? T

30 Abnormal immune function
Allergies (anaphylactic shock): hypersensitive responses to environmental antigens (allergens); causes dilation and blood vessel permeability (antihistamines); epinephrine Autoimmune disease: multiple sclerosis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Immunodeficiency disease: SCIDS (bubble-boy); A.I.D.S.

31 Induction of Immune Responses
Primary immune response: lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation the 1st time the body is exposed to an antigen Plasma cells: antibody-producing effector B-cells Secondary immune response: immune response if the individual is exposed to the same antigen at some later time~ Immunological memory

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