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Potentiality of pheromones in Insect pest management

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Presentation on theme: "Potentiality of pheromones in Insect pest management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Potentiality of pheromones in Insect pest management
K. Krishnaiah

2 Insect pests of national significance
Stem borer Gall midge Leaf and planthoppers Leaf folder Gundhi bug

3 Relative Importance of Insect
Pests of Rice in India BPH 16% Stem borer 29% Other Pests 14% GLH 9% WBPH Leaf Folder 10% Gall midge 13%

4 Alternatives control strategies are required
Current pesticide-based control technologies are not desirable or sustainable typically farmers apply 2-3 sprays in the wet season and up to 15 sprays in dry season cash crops Alternatives control strategies are required natural enemies, pheromones, viruses, Bt

5 Semiochemicals Mediate interaction between organisms
• Pheromones (produced and received by same members of same species - communication) – Sexual attraction, aggregation,alarm, • Allelochemicals (affect species other than the Producer, – Allomones, kairomones, synomones (attraction or repellence, oviposition, symbiosis)

6 Uses of Pheromones Monitoring Populations Detection – Quarantine
Prediction - ETL Control Populations Mass Trapping / Male annihilation Lure and Kill Mating Disruption Auto-confusion

7 Insect Pests with commercially available Pheromones
Paddy lepidopterous pests Sugarcane stem / Inter node borers Cotton – Helicoverpa, Spodoptera spp, Earias spp, Pectinophora Brinjal –Shoot and fruit borer Ground nut – Leaf roller/miner, (Root grub (poly phagous Aggregation) Red Palm weevil (aggregation) Sweet Potato weevil (Aggregation) Cucurbit Fruit Fly ( Cue- lure and Methyl Eugenol)

8 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India
S. No Name of the insect Pheromone components Compo -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 1 Helicoverpa armigera (Gram Caterpillar) Z-11-16Ald : Z-9-16Ald 97 : 3 Monitoring 4-6 30 – 60 Cotton, Gram, Pigeon pea etc. 2 Scirpophaga incertulas (Rice yellow stem borer) 3:1 Male annihilation (Mass -Trapping) 3 8 21 Paddy Spodoptera litura (Tobacco caterpillar) 9,11-Z,E-14Ac: 9,12-Z,E-14Ac 9:1 Mass Trapping 4 16 28 Cotton, Ground nut, Vegetables Other crops Pectinophora gossypiella (Pink boll worm) Z,E-7, 11-16Ac: Z,Z-7, 11-16Ac 1:1 60 Cotton 5 Leucinodes orbonalis (Brinjal Shoot &Fruit borer) E-11-16Ac: E-11-16OH 100:1 Mass trapping Brinjal, Potato

9 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India (contd.,)
S. No Name of the insect Pheromone components Compo -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 6 Aproaerema modicella (Groundnut Leaf miner) Z-7,Decenyl acetate, E-7, Decenyl acetate Z-7,9 Decadienyl acetate Monitoring Male annihilation 3 8 30 Ground nut 7 Plutella Xylostella (Diamondback moth) Z-11-16Ald: Z-11-16Ac: Z-11-16OH 10:10:0.1 4 Cole crops Chilo infuscatellus (Early shoot borer of Sugarcane) 100 60 Sugarcane 9 Chilo sacchariphagus (Internode borer of Sugarcane) Z-13-18Ac: Z-13-18OH 7:1 2 10 Scripophaga excerptalis (Sugarcane Top Borer) Z-11-16Ald E-11-16Ald 11 Chilo auricilius (Sugarcane Stalk Borer) Z-8-13Ac: Z-9-14Ac: Z-10-15Ac 8:4:1 Male annhilation

10 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India (contd.,)
S. No Name of the insect Pheromone components Compo -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 12 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Red Palm Weevil) 4-Methyl-5-Nonanone: 4-Methyl-5 nonanol 1:9 Mass Trapping 2 / Ha 90 Coconut Monitoring 1 / Ha 180 13 Oryctes rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Beetle) Ethyl-4-Methyl octanoate 100 Male annihilation 120 14 Earias vittella (Spotted bollworm) Z Ald: E,E-10,12-16Ald: Z-11-18Ald 2:10:2 4 -6 30 Cotton 15 Earias insulana (Spiny bollworm) E,E-10,12-16Ald Z-11-16Ald 10 :1

11 List of insect sex pheromones for use in the management of insect pests in India (contd.,)
S. No Name of the insect Pheromone components Compo -nent Ratio Method of Use No of traps / Acre Replace -ment time (days) Crops 16 Bactrocera cucurbitae (Melon Fly) Cue lure: 4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butenone(ethanol + cue lure +dichlorvos in the ratio of 6:4:1) (ethanol + cue lure + DDVP 6:4:1) Male annihilation 3 - 4 90 Cucurbits 17 Bactrocera dorsalis (Fruit fly) Methyl Eugenol 100 Mango, Guava 18 Xylotrechus quadripes (Coffee white stem borer) 2-Hydroxy-3-decanone Monitoring 8 3 Coffee 19 Conopomorpha cramerella (Cocoa pod borer) E,E,Z-4,6,10-16 AC E,E,Z-4,6,10-16 OH E,Z,Z-4,6,10-16 AC 60:6:40 8 / Ha Cocoa 20 Cylas formicarius (Sweet potato weevil) Z(3)dodecenyl-2-butenoate 2 30 Sweet Potato

12 Yellow Stem Borer White Stem Borer Pink Stem Borer Dark headed Stem Borer Striped Stem Borer

13 Different stages of Yellow Stem Borer
Female Egg mass Larva White head White head

YSB PSB WSB % COMPOSITION GHAGRAGHAT 85.7 14.3 86.7 13.3 90.9 9.1 20 40 60 80 100 Tillering Max.tillering Heading Nellore : > 90% YSB Bankura : > 90% YSB Maruteru : > 90% YSB

15 Female Male

16 YSB management through
Monitoring Install 3 sleeve traps loaded with dispensers impregnated with 5mg YSB pheromone in a paddy field of 1 acre in a triangular pattern) Record male moth catches at 3 day interval. Sudden rise in moth catch synchronizes with brood emergence (Average 25/30 catch/trap/week in most of the observations) Observe fields for egg masses after 3 days; dead hearts after a week . On confirming moth activity/ egg mass / dead heart incidence ( following YSB ETLs) take decision on insecticide application

17 Relationship among PT and LT catches and YSB damage of YSB, AICRIP Kharif 1999
% Inf. PT catch LT catch 60 14 RAGOLU 12 50 10 PT & LT catch 40 % Infestation 8 30 6 20 Significant correlation was noticed between peak pheromone trap catch and oviposition after a week and borer damage after two weeks. 4 10 2 Aug-I II III IV Sep-I II III IV Oct-I II III IV Nov-I II III IV Weeks

18 Pheromone trap capture threshold
TENTATIVE ECONOMIC TRAP CAPTURE THRESHOLDS = 25 to 30 males/trap/week By closely monitoring the sudden increase in the trap catch around 25 to 30 male moths/ trap/ week followed by field scouting after 3 days for presence of egg masses or 2 weeks for dead hearts may lead to fairly precise decision on need for insecticidal intervention (Varma, N.R.G.).

19 Pheromone based monitoring systems of rice insect pests
incertulas C. suppressalis inferens C. medinalis M. separata Components (Z11-16AI (Z) 9-16: Al ( Z) 11-16: Al (Z) 13-18: Al (Z) 11-16: Ac (Z) 11-16: OH (Z) 11-16: Al (Z) 13-18: Ac (Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z)-11 hexa decenal-1ol Best blend 3:01 10:01:01 40:10:01 10:01 8:01 Dose 2 to 5 mg 0.3 to 0.6 mg 2mg 1mg Dispenser rubber polythene vial Replacement period 3-4 weeks 4 weeks Trap design sleeve plastic funnel delta sticky Sleeve traps Sleeve colour white yellow -- Trap elevation 0.5-1 m 0.5 m 1.0m canopy level 0.5m above crop canopy

20 Lepidopteran Mating Disruption - Market
• Insecticide resistance, reduce chemical inputs, IPM programmes, organic sector • Over 600,000 treated ha worldwide (2002) – 230,000 ha (forestry) USA against gypsy moth – 120,000 ha apple, pear, walnut worldwide against Codling moth – 90,000 ha specific EU uses on grapes : grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) and European grape berry moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella)

21 Control of YSB by Mating Disruption Field Installed with Pheromone Dispensers
625 Pont sources; Pheromone dose 40 gm active ingredient / Ha; Shoe lace formulations

22 Mating disruption Plumes of Pheromone/or its analogue (para pheromone) in high conc are permeated into entire field-cause sensory adaptation of pheromone receptors leading to inability of insects to discriminate odours from background. YSB damage could be effectively managed by treating the field with pheromone dose of 40g a.i/ha incorporated through 625 controlled release point sources(shoe lace formu.). But not considered as it was cost prohibitive

23 MANAGEMENT OF RICE YELLOW STEM BORER THROUGH PHEROMONE MEDIATED MATING DISRUPTION (MULTILOCATION TRIALS) YSB damage Location Area (Acre) Season Pheromone 40g a.i./ha) Farmers Practice Medchal 25 Rabi 1994 5.28 13.04 Warangal 15.67 20.89 Nellore Rabi 1995 3.76 10.12 Karjat 4.29 22.70 Mandapaka 12.5 Rabi 1998 5.46 9.63

24 Pheromone Mediated Male annihilation
/Mass trapping Method

25 Male annihilation/ Mass trapping technique
Phe Lure strength (Phe): 5 mg Pheromone traps : 20 traps/ha (25x20 m) Lure effect : 3 Wks. Renew monthly Trap height : 50…….100cm ensuring lure placed just above crop canopy Time of application: 10 DAT

26 Yellow stem borer management by pheromone aided mass trapping of male moths (over large areas)
Medchal, Mandapaka, Rabi 1997* Rabi 1998** Treatments % Infestation Yield % Infestation Yield DH WE (kg/ha) DH WE (kg/ha) Pheromone 0.04a 4.39a 6380a 1.4a 4.1a 7100a treated Farmers 1.09a 19.41b 4932b 7.8b 17.6b 4800b practice * Area 350 Ac. ** Area 150 Ac.

27 Effect of pheromone mass trapping integrated with
chemical control on YSB infestation and yield Kapurthala Kharif 1997 Kharif 1998 Treatment %DH Yield %WE Yield (Kg/ha) (Kg/ha) PT + I 1.6 a 5360 a 11.2 b 6500 a FP 8.9 c 4480 b 31.7 c 5480 c Area = 40 acre/ treatment, Sub plots = 5, Hills sampled = 50/ sub plot.

28 Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar
Cost of different protection measures Protection Measures Cost of Protection (Rs./ha) Insecticide application 1 Granule spray 2 lakh/ha for 6 wks (Rs.50/20000) 3000 Pheromone 20/ha (Rs.30-35/trap) Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar

29 Optimized pest management practices in different IPM modules at Maruteru, rabi 2007
1.7 6807b 5.7a FP 1.4 4777d 17.5b IPM3 2.0 7353a 6.5a IPM2 1.6 5177c 17.6b IPM1 CBR Yield (kg/ha) %WE Treatments * in IPM 2 pheromone mass trapping was employed

30 Pheromone based monitoring and Mass Trapping Technology Adoption and Promotion
ICAR included in “Technologies for offer(2000)” DBT recommd. as one of itsTransferable Technologies. SAUs - in package of practices & SDAs promoting through ongoing special Rice IPM schemes and FFS DRDAs, and NGOs included in their TT programmes Organic Basmathi Rice cultivation Cooperatives, Uttaranchal as sole method for YSB management

31 Other successee Mass Trapping Brinjal shoot and fruit borer Sugarcane shoot inter node borer Ground nut leaf roller Lure and Kill Fruit flies - pheromone and para pheromone Red Palm weevil Sweet potato weevil

32 From Exosect Co., U.K. + PCIL
New product Exosex YSBTab – Pheromone Formulation in Tablet form provides effective protection. {mass trapping + Mating disruption} From Exosect Co., U.K. + PCIL

33 YSBTab is made of compressed Entostat wax powder
Entostat is electrostatic wax particles that adhere to insect cuticle. YSB female sex pheromone is formulated into wax powder YSB males are attracted to tablets made of pressed powder. Powder adheres to male cuticle

34 YSBTab mode of action Male attracted to pheromone tablet
Pheromone powder sticks to male Male unable to detect female- mating disrupted Male with Ento attracts other males forming mobile dispensers

35 Deployment options using available local resources, no direct crop contact
80 point sources per ha


37 YSB Sex Tab 20 mg aided Auto-confusion

38 Parameters of Pheromone use methods
Pheromone(mg) /Ha No. of point sources/Ha Times to be applied Mating Disruption 40,000 625 1 Mass Trapping 480 20 1+3 Auto confusion -Exosex YSB Tab 3.2 mg 512 80 1+1 Auto confusion -Exosex YSB Tab 20 mg 1600

39 The difference of Auto-Confusion (AC) from Mating Disruption (MD)
It utilizes the natural behaviour of the male insect to effect control of the mating as opposed to prevent the natural behaviour of the male insect in M.D. Effective at a dose of 1600 mg/ha in auto-confusion as compared to 40,000 mg/ha in mating disruption (approx 25 times less pheromone used in AC compared to MD

40 PROTOCOLS Treatment details:
Variety: Uniform variety Treatment details: AC I – 80 YSB Tab(3.2mg) point sources (11x11m) / ha applied at 10 DAT-renewed at 45 DAT(512mg ai/Ha) AC II – 80 YSB Tab 20 mg pheromone applied once at 10 DAT(1600 mg/Ha) MT – 20 Funnel traps/ ha (25x20 m) loaded with lures (5mg phe/lure) at 10 DAT. Lures renewed thrice at 3 week intervals FP –chemical control on need basis/as per farmers’ discretion/ recommendations

41 Lay out of Field Trial R I R II R III Auto-Confusion 3Ha 100m
Mass Trapping 100 m > 1 Km Farmers’ Practice Auto-confusion . >1Km AutoConfusion R I R II R III 41

42 Trials (farmers’ fields) on YSB management through Auto confusion
Season, Year Location Institute , Scientists involved Rice Gr. situat ion Methods of protection Kh 2006 Guntur, A.P. KVK, Cheru, Mahesh Baba Canal area Opti. Dose & point sources Rabi 2007 KVK, Cheru, Mahesh Baba AC I, M.T, Chem Nalg., A.P. KVK, Gaddi.Nrsihma Reddy ACI, M.T., Chem Kh 2007 Uttaranchal GBPUA&T,Pant.Dr.S.P.Tewari Basmathi Rabi 2008 WGL, A.P. ANGRAU, Ram Prasad, Sunitha, Anitha Ground wat Kh 2008 Fazilka, Punjab PAU, Ludhiana, Dr.Sarao, Suri Rabi 2009 KarimnagarAP KVK Jammi Ku.Venkateswar Rao Kh 2009 3 loca.Orissa PAU, Ludhiana,Dr. Sarao, Suri AC I, AC II, Chem Orissa 2 loc. A.P. 1 loc. K.Sagar, OUAT,Bub;(Dr.Panda) ANGRAU Gr. Water & Canal Kh 2010 Burdwan, BCKVV, W.B., Dr.Satpathy Ground water

43 Findings and conclusions
Auto-confusion through Exosex YSB Tab was effective method for YSB Management Exosex YSB Tab 3.2 mg at 10 &45 DAT at 80 point sources (512 mg/Ha) was effective- either superior or match with Mass Trapping and/ Chemical control. Exosex YSB Tab.20 mg (1600 mg /Ha) applied once at 10 DAT offered season long protection from YSB. Single application of insecticide was to be supplemented at 1 or 2 occasions, where insect infestation level was very high due to high input management practices. .

44 Results and conclusion (contd.)
Grain yields, although high, did not differ significantly from other practices. Eco-friendly by harboring large number of predatory population and not adversely affecting egg parasite emergence. Cost of treatment matched with chemical control. Cost benefit ratios of Farmers’ practice and auto-confusion treatment respectively were 1:1.62 to respectively (Satpathy, 2011) . Auto confusion technology - reliable component of IPM on Rice in YSB management

45 YSB Management by Auto-confusion Vs Mass Trapping Rabi,2008, ARS Warangal.

46 Comparision of YSB Tab. 3.2mg twice (AC 1) and YSB Tab 20 mg once (AC 2)

47 Impact of Auto confusion YSB damage in at Patrasahi (Orrisa) Trial, Rabi 2010 at

48 Efficacy of YSB Tabs for management of YSB in WB, Kharif 2010

49 Efficacy of Exo sex YSB Tabs for management of YSB in WB, Kharif 2010
Treatments Exo sect Ysb Tab 45 DAT % DH 85 DAT %WE 110 DAT %WE Yield kg/ha 3.2 mg (AC1) 0.72 (0.46) 1.18 (1.10) 1.80 1.35 4168 20 mg (AC2) 0.16 (0.88) 1.49 (1.25) 2.14 (1.83) 4021 Farmer’s practice (FP) 1.57 (1.27) 3.17 (1.82) 11.28 (3.34) 3702 (0.27) CD(.05) 0.25 0.37 58

50 Cost Benefits of Chemical Control Vs. Auto confusion (Satpathy, Kh
Treatments Cost and value of inputs and returns (Rs./Ha) Treatment cost (Rs) Labour cost(Rs) Total production costs (Rs)* Gross return(R s) Net return(Rs) C:B ratio Farmer’s practice Cost of3 insecticidesare 1800/ 750/ 24760/ 95280/ 70520/ 1:2.84 Exosex YSB Tab tablets /ha ( twice in a season) 2000/ 450/ 24740/ 108600/ 83860/ 1:3.38 Exosex YSB Tab tablets /ha ( Once in a season) 3000/ 300/ 25640/ 104570/ 78930/ 1:3.07

51 YSBTab preserves Predator populations
Rabi ‘08, ANGRAU , Warangal 0.7 0.6 YSBTab 0.5 FP Mass trapping 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 25 DAT 35 DAT 45 DAT 55 DAT 65 DAT 75 DAT

52 Auto-confusion recorded significantly more unfertilised eggs than FP , Kh’07, Pantnagar
Mean Unfertilized eggs (%) AC FP P (5%) Mean of 9 trials 41.6 34.1 0.04 The mean percentage of unfertilized egg masses was significantly higher in auto-confusion plot as compare to farmers’ practice plot. The result indicated that auto-confusion technique significantly lowered the fertilization of eggs of yellow stem borer.

53 Central Insecticide Board Exemption from Registration
Auto-Confusion Central Insecticide Board Exemption from Registration Mass Trapping Auto-Confusion Pheromone Based Monitoring

54 Thank you 54

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