Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Learning About Earth’s Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1 Learning About Earth’s Geography Section 1 Discovering the EarthVocabulary p. 19Geography – The study of the earth, how its features affect human life, and how the earth is affected by human activities.Environment – All the surroundings of a place, such as land, water, weather, plants, and the changes people have made.Vegetation – Plant life.Gazetteer – A list of places of Geographical significance, such as countries, cities, rivers, and deserts. Questions and Answers (1 - 4) p. 23What are environments?All of the features that make up the surroundings of a place.What is an isthmus? Name one isthmus.A narrow strip of land bordered by water and connecting two larger bodies of land.What is the difference between an ocean and a sea?An ocean is a large, open body of water;A sea is a part of the ocean that is largely enclosed by land.What are the physical features of your environment?Answers will vary; but should include reference to landforms, bodies of water, andvegetation
2 Chapter 1 Learning About Earth’s Geography Section 2 Climates of the WorldVocabulary p. 24Climate – The pattern of weather that an area has over a long period of time.Precipitation – Moisture in the form of rain or snow.Latitude – The distance north or south of the equator, expressed in degrees.Tropical Climate – The climate of the tropics, characterized by intense heat, much rain, and a lack of seasons.Temperate Climate – Climate characterized by a lack of extremes in temperature.Polar Climate – The climate of the earth’s polar regions, characterized by short summers and long winters.Altitude – Height above sea level.Current – A portion of a body of water or air flowing in approximately the same path. Questions and Answers (1 - 4) p. 28Are temperatures warmer in low latitudes or high latitudes? Why?Warmer in the low latitudes because of closer distance to the equator.Why are temperatures generally lower at higher altitudes?The higher the altitude, the cooler the temperature.How do ocean currents affect climate?Cold currents, flowing from the poles, cool the climate.Warm currents, flowing from the equator, warm the climate.How does the climate of your region change from month to month?Answers will vary; but should include reference to latitude, altitude, and presence or absence ofcurrents.
3 Chapter 1 Learning About Earth’s Geography Section 3 Earth’s Resources Vocabulary p. 29Natural Resource – Something in nature that is useful or essential to humans, such as water, air, soil, or animals.Mineral – A natural substance, such as iron, copper, or salt, that is reached by digging into the earth.Renewable Resource – A natural resource, such as plants or soil, that can be used again and again if used properly.Nonrenewable Resource – A natural resource that can never be replaced once it is used, such as coal, oil, or metal. Questions and Answers (1 - 3) p. 31What are natural resources?Natural resources are gifts of nature that help us live – for example: water, air, soil,sunlight, plants, and animals.Explain how renewable resources and nonrenewable resources are different?Renewable resources can replace or rebuild themselves.Nonrenewable resources cannot.What are some of the ways you can preserve the world’s resources?Answers will vary; but might include using resources sparingly, caring for soil,replanting, caring for animals, and recycling.
4 Chapter 1 Learning About Earth’s Geography Building Skills Geography SkillsVocabulary p. 32Latitude – The distance north or south of the equator, expressed in degrees.Longitude – The distance east or west of the prime meridian, expressed in degrees.Degree – A unit of measurement indicating the distance between lines of latitude and lines of longitude.Parallel – Any line of latitude. Lines that are parallel never meet or cross.Prime Meridian – The line of longitude marked zero degrees on the world map, from which longitude east and west is measured.Meridian – Any line of longitude west or east of the prime meridian.Grid – Formed when parallels and meridians cross each other, thus making it possible to pinpoint exact locations. Questions and Answers (1 - 5) p. 33How do lines of latitude and lines of longitude help you to read a map?They are numbered to show locations north or south of the equator and east or west ofthe prime meridian.Is the line marked 60 degrees south a parallel or a meridian? Why?A parallel; It is parallel to the equator.What two cities on the map fall on the same line of latitude? What two cities are on the same line of longitude?Quito / Nairobi; London / AccraThe location of Buenos Aires is 35 degrees South, 60 degrees West. What letter on the map shows this location?CGive the latitude and longitude of the places marked A, B, and X.A: 35 degrees North 60 degrees EastB: 60 degrees North 35 degrees EastX: 20 degrees South 120 degrees East
5 Chapter 1 Learning About Earth’s Geography Summary and ReviewIdeas to Remember p. 34Geography is the study of the earth and its features and how people affect the earth. The earth has many different environments that help shape the way people live.Climate consists of patterns of weather over a long period of time. The climate of a particular region is highly influenced by such things as latitude, altitude, and ocean currents.Natural resources are an essential part of the earth and should be preserved. Some resources are renewable; other resources are nonrenewable. Reviewing Facts p. 34True: Geography includes the study of the effects that people have on the earth.False: Most natural resources are unevenly distributed.False: Natural resources such as altitude and ocean currents greatly affect how people live.False: Altitude helps determine the climate of a place.False: The high latitudes have the coldest climates.False: Currents in the Atlantic Ocean make parts of Europe’s climate warmer than it would otherwise be.True: Minerals are natural substances that are reached by digging into the earth.True: Water covers more than 70 percent of the earth.False: The low latitudes tend to have hot climates.False: Climate is the weather of a region over a long period of time.