Presentation on theme: "Religion in ancient Greece …and the divinities M. Bridgeo."— Presentation transcript:
Religion in ancient Greece …and the divinities M. Bridgeo
Religion in ancient Greece Greeks, like Egyptians and Mesopotmians before them, were polytheistic (belief in more than one deity). The deities of the ancient Greeks were also like the gods of the ancient Egyptians in that they were anthropomorphic (appearnce of humans experiencing the same emotions as humans). The name anthropomorhic comes from the greek; anthrôpos (man) and morhpê: (form) Together, the deities, both male and female, were part of a large family believed to have originated from Mount Olympus M. Bridgeo
A strange and incestuous family The family had 12 members to which you will be introduced…these gods were called the Olympians. There were also two other gods who were adored, Hades and Dionysus. Zeus, the god of gods, had 2 brothers and two sisters. Zeus had 8 children and his wife was also his sister…incest!!! Here is the family tree… M. Bridgeo http://www.dinosoria.com/religion/zeus_cc03.jpg
Zeus god of gods Hera Marriage Demeter pregnancy Poseidon Sea Hades Underworld Hermes Protector of travelers/ Messenger of the gods Dionysus Wine & Theatre Apollo Sun Athena Intelligence Hephaestos Blacksmith of weapons For the gods Ares War Artemis Hunting, the moon and the night Hestia The home Aphrodite Beauty & love M. Bridgeo
12 Olympians + Hades & Dionysus The Muses Associated with the god Apollo (Sun), they inspired artists, writers and musicians. There were 9 and they were the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, the goddess of memory. The Fates 3 female deities that controlled the fates of all human beings. Clotho (spun the thread of a persons life) Lachesis (decided how much time a Person would live) Atropos (cut the thread at the time of death) The Furies Born from the spilled blood Of Uranus, they enforced family law and avenged especially those who were killed by family members. Tisiphone (avenger of murder) Megaera (the jealous) Alecto (constant anger) M. Bridgeo Uranus – God of the Sky, one of the original gods who had no parentage but was conceived of Chaos, the primal form of the universe.
Religion of the ancient Greeks All of the deities possessed, as has already been mentioned, human emotions. Even with their supernatural powers they still felt and acted on (it was believed) their anger, jealousy, pity, love and hatred, to name a few. M. Bridgeo http://www.francine.boisvert.com/divination/cartes/deesses/athena.jpg
Religion of the ancient Greeks For this reason, the Greeks respected and feared the deities. If their life was going well, it was most certainly because they had pleased the deities and they were happy with them. If ever there were a problem or a disaster, it was surely due to something a mortal had done to enrage one of the deities (a seafaring accident that claimed lives, for instance would be due to the fact that Poseidon had been angered by someone). M. Bridgeo
Religion of the ancient Greeks The Greeks, believing that the gods could intervene in their lives for good or evil, worshipped often. Each city-state had their own protector deity and they were all worshipped differently. Some ways were as follows: Constructed temples or sanctuaries in their honor Constructed statues made of precious metals Sacrificed animals on sacred altars Made offerings of jewels, harvests, etc.. Held honorific customs (celebration or an event in honor of the deity) M. Bridgeo
Religion of the ancient Greeks As the city-states of ancient Greece were independent of one another (even at times enemies) these common religious beliefs were one of the two things that held the Greeks civilization together…the other being the language!!! 1. Language 2. Religious beliefs M. Bridgeo
La religion en Grèce M. Bridgeo City: Athens Deity: Athena Custom: Festive Parades In the streets of Athens to the Acropolis where the temple of Athena was situated. City: Olympia Deity: Zeus Custom: the Olympic Games 5 day competition Men only, competed in the nude sacred truce amongst city-states running, discus, javelin, wrestling, chariot races winners received a crown of olivs, a heros welcome upon return to their city-state and free dinners for life City-state: Delphes Deity: Apollo Custom: The Oracles Believing that the gods governed nature and the life of man, Greeks would go Go to the altar in the sanctuary of Apollo in the hope of learning about their future. They would question the priestess of the sanctuary, called the pythia, who would then translate the words of the goddess Apollo. These were called the Oracles…the pythia could also interpret omens in ones life.
Religion of the ancient Greeks Here we see, in a piece of art, a Greek at the sanctuary of Apollo in the hope of learning more about his future. He would question the young lady, the Pythia, who would then translate the words of Apollo, to the man to let him know what his future was…there was always a priest there to determine what the Pythia was saying, as she was often hallucinating…for good reason, she was chewing hallucinogens. http://elearning.unifr.ch/antiquitas/images/Pythie.jpg M. Bridgeo
Religious beliefs practiced alone no formal texts no priests with great powers (some travelled the country preaching to the poor) no organized church no special task of trying to persuade to live better lives M. Bridgeo
Death & the Afterlife Upon death, it was believed, the messenger god, Hermes, would lead the deceased across the River Styx (the chasm between the land of the living and the dead). Here they would be met by the boatman, Cheron, who would ferry the dead into Hades, paying a toll called the obolus. Cerebus, a watchdog, sat guard at the gates to ensure no one who ever entered ever left. Hades was not a happy place and people did not look forward to death!!! http://www.river-styx.net/greek-gods-hades.htm M. Bridgeo
1.How were the divinities similar and different to those found in ancient Egypt? 2.Where did the divinities live? 3.How many Olympians were there? 4.Who was the head divinity? How many brothers and sisters did he have? How many children? 5.How did the ancient Greeks pay homage to their divinities? 6.Give three examples of a city-state, their protector divinity and the custom associated with each. 7.What happened at the sanctuary of Apollo? M. Bridgeo