Presentation on theme: "John J. Wild 4th Edition Financial Accounting"— Presentation transcript:
1 John J. Wild 4th Edition Financial Accounting Information for DecisionsIn presentations for each chapter in this text we will provide you with sound to go along with the material on your screen. There will be sound on every slide you view. Please make sure your computer speakers are setup properly when viewing the material. Good luck and we hope you enjoy this new format.John J. Wild4th Edition
2 Introducing Accounting in Business Chapter 1Introducing Accountingin BusinessAs with most texts, the first chapter will be devoted to an introduction to terms and techniques we will be using in the remaining chapters. For some, this may be your first business course and the terms will be new. We will be discussing many of the key concepts introduced here in the remaining chapters of the text.
3 Conceptual Chapter Objectives C1: Explain the purpose and importance of accounting in the information ageC2: Identify users and uses of accountingC3: Identify opportunities in accounting and related fieldsC4: Explain why ethics are crucial in accountingC5: Explain the meaning of GAAP, and define and apply several key accounting principlesC6: Appendix 1B: Identify and describe the three major activities in organizations
4 Analytical Chapter Objectives A1: Define and interpret the accounting equation and each of its componentsA2: Analyze business transactions using the accounting equationA3: Compute and interpret return on assetsA4: Appendix 1A: Explain the relationship between return and risk
5 Procedural Chapter Objectives P1: Identify and prepare basic financial statements and explain how they interrelate
6 Importance of Accounting is asystem thatAccountingIdentifiesRecordsinformationthat isRelevantCommunicatesAccounting is the process of identifying, recording and communicating information that is relevant, reliable, and comparable. The goal of the accounting process is to provide helpful information to users of financial information. Quality information may help users reach more informed decisions.Reliableto help users make better decisions.Comparable
7 Accounting Activities Identifying Business ActivitiesRecording Business ActivitiesCommunicating Business ActivitiesNot all transactions entered into by a business entity are capable of being recorded. Our first task as accountants is to identify those transactions that may be recorded in the accounting system.In recording business transactions, we must follow the rules of double-entry bookkeeping. We will spend a significant amount of time early in the course discussing in detail the rules of the accounting process.Next, we should follow standard formatting when reporting information to users outside the organization. External users include stockholders of the company, lenders, various governmental agencies, and others.
8 Users of Accounting Information External UsersLendersShareholdersGovernmentsConsumer GroupsExternal AuditorsCustomersInternal UsersManagersOfficers/DirectorsInternal AuditorsSales StaffBudget OfficersControllersIn addition to the external users we referred to on the previous slide, accountants also prepare reports for internal users. Managers of the business need information to help direct and control operations of a business. The sales/marketing department needs information about customers and products. Officers of the company need information to develop strategic plans.
9 Users of Accounting Information External UsersFinancial accounting provides external users with financial statements.Internal UsersIn this book we will spend most of our time developing financial accounting information for external users. Some of the material we cover will prove useful to managers and other internal decision makers.Managerial accounting provides information needs for internal decision makers.
10 Opportunities in Accounting ManagerialGeneral accountingCost accountingBudgetingInternal auditingConsultingControllerTreasurerStrategyFinancialPreparationAnalysisAuditingRegulatoryConsultingPlanningCriminal investigationTaxationPreparationPlanningRegulatoryInvestigationsConsultingEnforcementLegal servicesEstate plansAccounting-relatedLendersConsultantsAnalystsTradersDirectorsUnderwritersPlannersAppraisersFBI investigatorsMarket researchersSystems designersMerger servicesBusiness valuationHuman servicesLitigation supportEntrepreneursCareers in accounting can follow many paths.There is great demand for financial accountants in the preparation of financial statements, dealing with regulatory agencies like the Internal Revenue Service, and consulting.Management accountants help track product costs, prepare budgets and serve as a consultant to managers.The field of taxation includes everything from the preparation of tax returns to consulting with clients about estate and gift planning.Individuals with accounting backgrounds may move into other areas of importance within an organization. Individuals with accounting training often become business owners and managers. They are in high demand in all financial and investigative fields.
11 Accounting Jobs by Area About twenty-five percent of accountants work in public accounting. Public accounting firms offer accounting, tax, and consulting services to a wide variety of clients. About sixty percent of accountants work for businesses slash corporations, and fifteen percent work for governmental, not-for-profit, and educational organizations.
12 Ethics—A Key Concept Ethics Beliefs that distinguish right from wrong Accepted standards of good and bad behaviorEthical behavior is the cornerstone of the accounting profession. Recently, we have seen many corporate scandals involving individuals who acted in an unethical, and often times illegal, way.Ethics is the belief system that permits us to distinguish right from wrong. It is something that we develop over our lifetimes and serves to help us identify good and bad behavior.
13 Guidelines for Ethical Decisions Make ethical decisionIdentify ethical concernsAnalyze optionsYou have faced ethical situations in school and will face similar situations at work. We should be capable of identifying ethical concerns and analyzing our options, that is, what is the right and wrong thing to do. Making an ethical decision means we choose the best option available under the circumstances.Use personal ethics to recognize ethical concern.Consider all good and bad consequences.Choose best option after weighing all consequences.
14 Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Financial accounting practice is governed by concepts and rules known as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).Relevant InformationAffects the decision of its users.Reliable InformationIs trusted by users.Financial accounting in governed by a set of rules we call Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP for short.Generally accepted accounting principles identify three major characteristics of information. First, the information must be relevant. Relevant information impacts the decision of the informed user for financial information. Second, the information must be reliable. Finally, the information must be comparable. Comparability helps us compare financial information from one period with that of the next period.Comparable InformationUsed in comparisons across years & companies.
15 Setting Accounting Principles Financial Accounting Standards Board is the private group that sets both broad and specific principles.The Securities and Exchange Commission is the government group that establishes reporting requirements for companies that issue stock to the public.The Financial Accounting Standards Board is recognized as the group in the private sector that makes specific accounting principles. If an accountant departs from the principles established by the F A S B, proper disclosure of the departure must be made.In the public sector, the Securities and Exchange Commission has the authority to establish accounting principles for companies reporting to the agency. Currently, the Securities and Exchange Commission has accepted all pronouncements of the F A S B for use by reporting companies.The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issues inter-national standards that identify preferred accounting practicesin other countries. The IASB does not have authority to imposeits standards on companies.
16 Principles of Accounting Cost PrincipleAccounting information is based on actual cost.Objectivity PrincipleAccounting information is supported by independent, unbiased evidence.NowFutureGoing-Concern PrincipleReflects assumption that the business will continue operating instead of being closed or sold.The objectivity principle states that accounting information must be unbiased and based upon independent evidence.The cost principle tell us that accounting information is based upon actual cost incurred. We refer to this cost as historical cost.The going-concern principle states that, in the absence of information to the contrary, the business entity is assumed to continue operations into the foreseeable future.
17 Principles of Accounting Monetary Unit PrincipleExpress transactions and events in monetary, or money, units.Revenue Recognition PrincipleRecognize revenue when it is earned.Proceeds need not be in cash.Measure revenue by cash received plus cash value of items received.Business Entity PrincipleA business is accounted for separately from other business entities, including its owner.The monetary unit principle tells us that we will only record accounting information that can be expressed in monetary units, usually dollars in the United States.The revenue recognition principle states that revenue is to be recorded in the accounts of the company when it is earned. We need not wait until cash is received before we recognize revenue. It may be difficult to follow this principle in the beginning of the course because you are probably a cash basis individual. You usually wait until cash is paid or received before recognizing a transaction.The business entity principle tells us that we must separate out the transaction of individual owners of a business from those of the business.
18 Business Entity Forms Sole Proprietorship Partnership Corporation C 5 There are three general forms of business operations. A sole proprietorship is a business owned by just one individual. A partnership is owned by two or more individuals. Some partnerships has several thousand partners. A corporation is owned by individuals who normally are not active in the day-to-day operations of that business. For example, you may become an owner of IBM by purchasing shares of stock on the New York Stock Exchange. While you are a part owner, you do not necessarily work for IBM nor are active in the operations of the company.
19 Characteristics of Businesses *Here is a key summary of some of the various aspects of our three general type of businesses. Notice that a corporation is a separate legal entity. That means it can sue and be sued in court. If you wish to sue a partnership, you must sue all the individual partners. You should also be aware that a corporation is a separate taxable entity. The income or loss from proprietorships and partnerships are taxed as income or loss to the individuals involved. A corporation has a special tax return and tax schedule. A proprietorship or partnership may be setup as a limited liability corporation, or L L C. This form of business helps protect the assets of individual owners of the business entity.* Proprietorships and partnerships that are set up as LLC’s provide limited liability.
20 Owners of a corporation are called shareholders (or stockholders). When a corporation issues only one class of stock, we call it common stock (or capital stock).Corporate owners are referred to as stockholders or shareholders because they own shares of common stock. A common stock certificate serves as an ownership document for a corporation. Sometimes we refer to common stock as capital stock. The two terms may be used interchangeably.
21 = + Accounting Equation Liabilities Equity Assets Liabilities & Equity The basic accounting equation states that assets are equal to liabilities plus equity of a company. The equation makes sense because in a general way it states that assets must be equal to the claims against those assets. If you have an asset we can have two broad categories of claims against that asset. First, we may have claims by creditors, liabilities. Finally, after all creditor claims are satisfied, the residual owners, and stockholders, have a claim on those assets.Liabilities & EquityAssets
22 Resources owned or controlled by a company AssetsA1CashAccounts ReceivableNotes ReceivableResources owned or controlled by a companyVehiclesLandAssets may be viewed as resources owned or controlled by a company. They include such items as cash, accounts receivable (amounts owed to the company by customers), land, building and equipment, and supplies.BuildingsStore SuppliesEquipment
23 Creditors’ claims on assets LiabilitiesA1Accounts PayableNotes PayableCreditors’ claims on assetsLiabilities represent the claims of creditors on the entity’s assets. Liabilities include accounts payable (amounts we owe to creditors for assets purchased on account), notes payable, taxes payable, and wages payable (amounts we owe to our employees at the end of the accounting period).Wages PayableTaxes Payable
24 Equity Owner’s claim on assets Retained Earnings Contributed Capital The equities of an entity include investments by owners, contributed capital, and payments to those owners (dividends). Retained earnings represents all of the accumulated earnings of a corporation that have not been distributed to shareholders.Dividends
25 Expanded Accounting Equation LiabilitiesEquityAssets=+LiabilitiesEquityAssets=+RevenuesExpensesCommon StockDividends_+Here is a breakdown of the equity section of the of the accounting equation to show the mathematical signs we will be using to keep track of investments by owners, common stock, payments to owners (dividends), revenues and expenses. Notice that revenues increase equity and expenses reduce equity.Retained Earnings
26 Transaction Analysis Equation The accounting equation MUST remain in balance after each transaction.LiabilitiesEquityAssets=+During the process of recording business transactions, it is important that we always keep the accounting equation in balance. We can’t let our books get out of balance. You have probably heard this term before, but may not have been sure what we meant by keeping the books in balance.
27 Transaction AnalysisA2J. Scott invests $20,000 cash to start the business in exchange for stock.The accounts involved are:(1) Cash (asset)(2) Common Stock (equity)Let’s look at the identification and recording of business transactions. We can begin by analyzing a transaction where J. Scott contributes twenty thousand dollars cash to get the business started. First, we have to identify the assets, liability or equity accounts involved in this transaction. We can see that the cash account will increase by twenty thousand dollars and the common stock account will increase by twenty thousand dollars. Let’s see how the books of the company will appear after we record this transaction.21
28 Transaction AnalysisA2J. Scott invests $20,000 cash to start the business in return for stock.Here we show the increase in the asset account, cash, and the increase in the equity account, common stock, by twenty thousand dollars. Our basic accounting equation is in balance. Assets have a total balance of twenty thousand dollars and liabilities plus equity have a total balance of twenty thousand dollars. Let’ move on to another transaction.21
29 Transaction Analysis Purchased supplies paying $1,000 cash. The accounts involved are:(1) Cash (asset)(2) Supplies (asset)In this transaction, the company purchases general office supplies by paying one thousand dollars cash. The asset account, cash, will decrease by the one thousand dollars cash paid. The asset account, supplies, will increase by one thousand dollars, the cost of the supplies. In this transaction we are giving up one asset, cash, and receiving another asset, supplies. Let’s look at our books after this transaction is recorded.25
30 Purchased supplies paying $1,000 cash. Transaction AnalysisA2Purchased supplies paying $1,000 cash.We can see the decrease in cash and the increase in supplies. The total assets are still equal to twenty thousand dollars but are divided between cash and supplies. There is no change on the liabilities plus equity section of our books.25
31 Purchased equipment for $15,000 cash. Transaction AnalysisA2Purchased equipment for $15,000 cash.The accounts involved are:(1) Cash (asset)(2) Equipment (asset)This transaction is similar to the last one we recorded. Here we purchase equipment by paying fifteen thousand dollars cash. The asset account, cash, will decrease by fifteen thousand dollars. The asset account, equipment, will increase by fifteen thousand dollars. Once again, we are exchanging one asset for another. Can you predict what our books will look like after recording this transaction?29
32 Purchased equipment for $15,000 cash. Transaction AnalysisA2Purchased equipment for $15,000 cash.Cash is reduced by fifteen thousand dollars and equipment is increased by fifteen thousand dollars. The balance in our cash account is now four thousand dollars. We have a current balance in supplies of one thousand dollars, and equipment of fifteen thousand dollars. The three asset accounts total twenty thousand dollars. Once again, there has been no change in the liabilities plus equity side of the equation.29
33 Transaction AnalysisA2Purchased Supplies of $200 and Equipment of $1,000 on account.The accounts involved are:(1) Supplies (asset)(2) Equipment (asset)(3) Accounts Payable (liability)In this transaction, the company purchases supplies of two hundred dollars and equipment of one thousand dollars on account. We do not pay cash, but agree to pay off the account at some point in the future. The asset account, supplies increases by two hundred dollars and the asset account, equipment increases by one thousand dollars. In this transaction, the liability account, accounts payable, increases by one thousand, two hundred dollars. Let’s see what our books look like now.30
34 Transaction AnalysisA2Purchased Supplies of $200 and Equipment of $1,000 on account.You can see the balance in the cash, supplies and equipment accounts. The total on the asset side of the equation is twenty one thousand, two hundred dollars. We acquired the assets without paying cash. If you use a credit card to purchase gas for your car, you receive an asset, gas, and incur an account payable to the credit card company. The balance in the liabilities accounts is now twelve hundred dollars, and the common stock account balance is still twenty thousand dollars.30
35 Borrowed $4,000 from 1st American Bank. Transaction AnalysisA2Borrowed $4,000 from 1st American Bank.The asset account, cash, increased by four thousand dollars and the liability account, notes payable increased by four thousand dollars. The asset side of the equation now has a balance of twenty five thousand, two hundred dollars. The liabilities plus equity side of the equation has the same total balance, so our books are in balance.
36 Transaction AnalysisA2The balances so far appear below. Note that the Balance Sheet Equation is still in balance.Notice that the sum of all assets is equal to the sum of liabilities and equity. The accounting equation is in balance as required.32
37 Transaction AnalysisA2Now, let’s look at transactions involving revenue, expenses and dividends.To this point, we have not looked at transactions involving revenues, expenses, and dividends. In the next few slides with address these accounts.
38 Transaction AnalysisA2Provided consulting services receiving $3,000 cash.The accounts involved are:(1) Cash (asset)(2) Revenues (equity)The company rendered consulting services to a customer receiving three thousand dollars cash in full payment. The asset account, cash, will increase by three thousand dollars. The equity account, revenues, will also increase by the same amount. Let’s look at our expanded book balances.32
39 Transaction AnalysisA2Provided consulting services receiving $3,000 cash.You see that our cash account increases by three thousand dollars, to a current balance of eleven thousand dollars. Total assets amount to twenty eight thousand, two hundred dollars. The revenue account also increased by three thousand dollars. Recall that from our expanded accounting equation that revenues increase equity and expenses decrease equity. The total of our liabilities plus equity is now twenty eight thousand, two hundred dollars.32
40 But, equity decreases because expenses reduce equity. Transaction AnalysisA2The accounts involved are:(1) Cash (asset)(2) Salaries expense (equity)Paid salaries of $800 to employees.The company paid salaries to employees in the amount of eight hundred dollars cash. The asset account, cash, decreases by eight hundred dollars. The equity account, salaries expense, increases by eight hundred dollars. An increase in an expense account will decrease total equity. Do you think you can get this transaction recorded properly in our books?Remember that the balance in the salaries expense account actually increases.But, equity decreases because expenses reduce equity.
41 Remember that expenses decrease equity. Transaction AnalysisA2Paid salaries of $800 to employees.How did you do? You got the decrease in the cash account, but did you remember to show the increase in expenses as a decrease in total equity. Our expanded equation is getting to look more and more complicated. Don’t worry, practice will help you fully understand the recording of these and similar transactions. Our books are still in balance.Remember that expenses decrease equity.
42 Dividends of $500 are paid to shareholders. Transaction AnalysisA2The accounts involved are:(1) Cash (asset)(2) Dividends (equity)Dividends of $500 are paid to shareholders.The Board of Directors decided to pay a total cash dividend of five hundred dollars. The company’s cash account decreased by five hundred dollars. The equity account, Dividends, increased by five hundred dollars. Once again, refer back to the expanded accounting equation and you will see that dividends decrease total equity.Remember that the Dividend account actually increases.But, equity decreases because dividends reduce equity.
43 Transaction Analysis Dividends of $500 are paid to shareholders. Did you get this transaction recorded properly? We hope so. The asset account, cash, decreased by five hundred dollars and the equity account, Dividends increased by five hundred dollars. The dividend account reduces the total equity of the company in the same way expenses decrease equity. The final balances show that total assets are equal to twenty six thousand, nine hundred dollars. The total liabilities plus equity has the same balance. Let’s use the information we developed to this point to prepare our basic accounting reports.Remember that dividends decrease equity.
44 Financial StatementsP1Let’s prepare the Financial Statements reflecting the transactions we have recorded.Income StatementStatement of Retained EarningsBalance SheetStatement of Cash FlowsThere are four fundamental financial statements used in accounting.1. The income statement shows our revenues and expenses.2. The statement of owner’s equity shows the change in the owners’ equity during the current period.3. The balance sheet is a listing of all asset, liability, and equity account balances.4. The statement of cash flows shows where the company got its cash and how it spent its cash.The first financial statement that we prepare is the income statement. Let’s get started.34
45 Net income is the difference between Revenues and Expenses. Income StatementP1Net income is the difference between Revenues and Expenses.Net income is defined as the difference between revenues and expenses. If expenses exceed revenues, we have a net loss rather than net income. Financial statements have a three line title with the company name, the name of the statement, and the period covered by the report. In our case, we had total revenues of three thousand dollars and total expenses of eight hundred dollars, so net income for the month ended December 31, 2007, was two thousand, two hundred dollars. After completing the income statement, we may prepare the statement of retained earnings.The income statement describes a company’s revenues and expenses along with the resulting net income or loss over a period of time due to earnings activities.
46 Statement of Retained Earnings P1The net income of $2,200 increases Retained Earnings by $2,200.In the statement of retained earnings, we start with the balance at the beginning of the period, add net income earned during the period, and deduct any dividends paid, resulting in the ending balance in retained earnings. The company was started this month, so the beginning balance in retained earnings was zero. During December net income of two thousand, two hundred dollars was earned. In addition, five hundred dollars in dividends was paid, so the ending balance in retained earnings is one thousand, seven hundred dollars. After we complete this statement, we can prepare the balance sheet.
47 Balance SheetP1The Balance Sheet describes a company’s financial position at a point in time.The balance sheet is an inventory of assets, liabilities and equity at the end of the month. Our total assets are equal to twenty six thousand, nine hundred dollars. This includes cash of ninety seven hundred dollars, supplies of twelve hundred dollars, and equipment of sixteen thousand dollars.Liabilities include accounts payable of twelve hundred dollars and notes payable of four thousand dollars. The common stock account has a balance of twenty thousand dollars and we just calculated the ending balance in retained earnings of seventeen hundred dollars. You can see that the books are in balance because total assets are equal to total liabilities plus equity.Creditors have claims against our assets of five thousand, two hundred dollars. The owner has claims to assets of twenty one thousand, seven hundred dollars.
48 Statement of Cash Flows P1We will cover the statement of cash flows in detail in a later chapter. Notice that the statement is divided into three major sections; (1) cash flows from operating activities; (2) cash flows from investing activities; and (3) cash flows from financing activities. The statement reconciles to the ending cash balance of nine thousand, seven hundred dollars.
49 Net income Average total assets Return on Assets (ROA)P1Net income Average total assetsReturn on assets=ROA is viewed as an indicator of operating efficiency.A ratio that helps us measure operating efficiency of a company is the return on assets. Return on assets is calculated by dividing net income by average total assets. In most cases the simple average is used. Add the beginning and ending balance of total assets and divide by two to get a simple average.
50 End of Chapter 1This completes our discussion of chapter one. We have introduced many new concepts and procedures. Your homework assignments will help reinforce most of what we have covered in our presentation. If you have difficulty with your homework assignments, you may want to review this presentation again. Good luck.