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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter #2

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1 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter #2

2 Molecules and Compounds
A molecule is formed when two or more atoms combine. If atoms of different elements combine, the resulting structure can also be called a compound. Examples: Baking soda, sugar Molecular formula represents the numbers and types of atoms in a molecule. Examples… H2O & C6H12O6 Structural formulas show what molecules look like.

3 Structural Formation

4 2.3 Chemical Constituents of Cells
2 types of chemicals Organic must contain carbon and hydrogen but may contain other elements as well. (C6H12O6) Living things or once living things. Inorganic all the other compounds (H20) do NOT contain C.

5 Inorganic Compounds Water Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Salts

6 Water In the human body, water plays an important role in dissolving solid substances, moving chemicals around the body, and absorbing and moving heat Is the most abundant compound in cells and is a solvent in which chemical reactions occur. Transports chemicals and heat.

7 Oxygen Releases energy from glucose and other nutrients.
This energy drives metabolism.

8 Carbon Dioxide Is an inorganic substances that is a metabolic waste product, exhaled from the lungs.

9 Salts Provide a variety of ions that metabolic processes require.

10 Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids

11 Carbohydrates Supply most of the energy needed by cells
Composed of what 3 elements? C,H,O Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Disaccharides are two sugars joined together Polysaccharides, such as starch, are built of many sugars. Humans synthesize the complex carbohydrate called glycogen.

12 Lipids Lipids made of C,H,O but in different amounts
Lipids include fats (most common), steroids, and phospholipids. A fat that has all of its carbon atoms joined by single carbon to carbon bonds is said to be saturated. (solid at room temp, bad for you) Unsaturated fats (liquid at room temp, good for you, double bonds) Cholesterol, estrogens, and testosterone are all steroids. A phospholipid typically has two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group.

13 Proteins Proteins have a great variety of functions in the body---as structural materials, as energy sources, as certain hormones, as receptors on cell membranes, as antibodies, and as enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions. Proteins contain what 4 elements? C,H,O,N Sometimes S Building blocks of proteins are the amino acids (20) Proteins have complex shapes held together by hydrogen bonds. (their many shapes changes their functions) Protein shapes, which determine how proteins function, can be altered by pH, temperature, radiation, or chemicals. H bonds break this is called denatured.

14 Amino Acids Alanine Glutamic acid Leucine Serine Arginine Glutamine
You do NOT need in your notes Amino Acids Alanine   Glutamic acid      Leucine   Serine   Arginine   Glutamine   Lysine   Threonine   Asparagine   Glycine   Methionine 12.  Tryptophan      13. Aspartic acid      14. Histidine   15. Phenylalanine      16. Tyrosine   17. Cysteine   18. Isoleucine   19. Proline   20. Valine (NOTE: the 8 essential amino acids are in red.  These cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained from food. Arginine and histidine are essential only for children.)

15 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids form genes and take part in protein synthesis. They contain the elements C,H,O,N,P The building blocks are called nucleotides. Nucleic acids are of two major types: DNA (with deoxyribose) and RNA (with ribose).

16 DNA & RNA Deoxyribonucleic acid: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores the molecular code in genes. How many strands does it have? 2 Deoxy means without Oxygen Ribonucleic acid: RNA (ribonucleic acid) functions in protein synthesis. How many strands does it have? 1

17 Clinical Connection Prion protein can assume up to 12 different shapes before prion was discovered it was believed protein shape was always 3-D Some prions are infectious “mad cow disease” Some prions are not infectious “Alzheimer disease” which cause gummy plaques in the brain and disrupt functioning. Some forms of Alzheimer disease may be caused by protein misfolding

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