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BLR’s Safety Training PresentationsFall Protection in Construction 29 CFR Background for the Trainer This training session applies to fall protection in construction and all workplaces covered under 29 CFR This regulation covers contractors and subcontractors who have workers employed in construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating. The fall protection requirements for workers on scaffolds and ladders and for workers in the steel erection of buildings are covered in other parts of OSHA’s regulations. The fall protection provisions do not apply when employees are making an inspection, investigation, or assessment of workplace conditions before the actual start of construction work or after all construction work has been completed. Failure to have fall protection 6 feet above a lower level ( (b)(1)) has been OSHA’s top violation for the construction industry for the past few years. In fiscal year 2002, almost 2,000 citations were issued for this violation by federal OSHA. Overall, 5,403 citations were issued, and $6,973, in penalties assessed for Duty to Have Fall Protection. Speaker’s Notes The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard for fall protection has detailed requirements for the construction industry. OSHA requires employers to evaluate the workplace in order to identify potential fall hazards such as leading edges, roof lines, holes, excavations, and skylights, as well as specific work processes such as overhand brick laying, erecting pre-cast concrete, and working on the vertical face of a rebar assembly. Once potential fall hazards have been identified, the appropriate type of fall protection must be provided. Fall protection might include guardrails, personal fall arrest systems, warning lines, safety monitoring, controlled access zone, safety nets, and positioning devices. All employees exposed to potential fall hazards must be trained to identify fall hazards as well as how to properly use fall protection. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Goals Fall hazards and basic fall protection systems Guardrails and personal fall arrest systems Quiz Speaker’s Notes We will start by discussing fall hazards and basic fall protection systems such as controlled access zones, warning lines, and safety monitoring. Next, we will discuss guardrails and personal fall arrest systems. Finally, we will wrap up the class with a quiz. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Construction Fall StatisticsLeading cause of construction industry fatalities workers are killed from falls each year 100,000 are injured from falls each year Speaker’s Notes Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in the construction industry. Between 150 and 200 workers in the construction industry are killed each year from a fall. About 100,000 construction workers are injured from falls each year. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Protecting Workers from Fall HazardsAssess where fall protection is needed Select fall protection systems Properly install fall protection systems Follow safe work procedures Train construction workers Speaker’s Notes The employer must start by assessing where fall protection is needed. The jobsite must be evaluated to determine where workers might be exposed to fall hazards such as leading edge work, holes in the floor, openings in walls including large windows, excavations, etc. Once the fall hazards have been determined, fall protection systems that are appropriate for each potential fall hazard must be selected. Fall protection safety systems must be properly constructed and installed. Some situations may require an engineer to design the fall protection system. Safe work procedures must be followed when using fall protection. You must do your part by following safe work practices and utilizing the fall protection system properly. Workers must be trained in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of fall protection systems. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
When Is Fall Protection Needed?6 feet or more above a lower level Hazard of falling into dangerous equipment Specific areas or activities Speaker’s Notes · Construction workers must be protected from potential fall hazards whenever working 6 feet or more above a lower level. · Construction workers must also be protected from falling into dangerous equipment. even if the equipment is only two or three feet below them. At this point, the dangerous equipment is more of a hazard than the fall. The OSHA standard identifies areas or activities where fall protection is needed. These areas include, but are not limited to, ramps, runways, walkways, excavations, hoist areas, holes, formwork and reinforcing steel, leading edge work, unprotected sides and edges, overhand bricklaying and related work, roofing work, pre-cast concrete erection, wall openings, and residential construction. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Safe Work Practices Pick up tripping hazards Be aware of your location Always use fall protection Avoid dropping objects Never run Listen for verbal warnings Background for the Trainer Discuss any hazards or safe work practices that are specific to your company or jobsite. Speaker’s Notes Before we start discussing different types of fall protection, it is important that we also discuss some general safe work practices that should be followed when working near potential fall hazards. Keep the workspace neat and orderly. A work area cluttered with materials, tools, equipment, etc., could result in a worker tripping and falling to a lower level. Always be aware of your surroundings. Know where the nearest potential fall hazard is located. Always use fall protection. Do not go near a potential fall hazard unless some type of fall protection system is in place. Be careful about dropping objects such as tools or materials. Workers below you could be seriously injured or killed. Never run when working aboveground. You could trip or lose your balance and fall to a lower level. Listen for verbal warnings. You may be unknowingly approaching a potential fall hazard. Listen to other workers when they warn you of potential hazards. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Warning Line System Consists of ropes, wires, chains Must be flagged every 6 feet Must be inches above working surface Stanchions must not tip over easily Must be erected at least 6 feet from the fall hazard Workers must be trained to stay out Background for the Trainer Discuss the specifics of warning line systems used by your company. Consider bringing in a warning line system or pictures of a system used by your company for demonstration purposes. Speaker’s Notes Let’s take a look at some different types of fall protection that are used in the construction industry. The purpose of a warning line system is keep workers far away from fall hazards, such as a roofline or a leading edge. Warning line systems consist of ropes, wires, or chains. The rope, wire, or chain selected must have a minimum tensile strength of 500 pounds (lb). The rope, wire, or chain must be flagged with high-visibility materials at intervals of 6 feet or less so workers can easily see the line. Warning line systems must be rigged and supported so that the lowest point, including sag, is not less than 34 inches and its highest point is not more than 39 inches above the walking or working surface. Stanchions, after being rigged with the warning lines, must be capable of resisting a force of at least 16 lb without tipping over. Warning line systems must be erected at least 6 feet from the fall hazard (e.g., the roofline or leading edge). Construction workers must be trained to identify warning line systems and understand that they are not to cross the warning line because there is a fall hazard on the other side of the warning line. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Safety Monitoring SystemCompetent person monitors safety of workers Recognizes fall hazards Warns workers of fall hazards and unsafe work practices Keeps unauthorized workers out of work area Workers promptly comply with safety monitor Background for the Trainer Discuss the specifics of safety monitoring systems used by your company. Consider bringing pictures of a safety monitoring system used by your company for demonstration purposes. Speaker’s Notes Safety monitoring systems are used only when no other alternative fall protection can be implemented. A competent person is appointed to monitor the safety of the workers and to keep them clear of potential fall hazards. The monitor must be able to recognize potential fall hazards. The safety monitor will warn workers of fall hazard dangers and unsafe work practices. He or she must be on the same working or walking surface as the workers, always see every worker, and be close enough to communicate orally with the workers. The monitor cannot have any other duties that will distract from the job of monitoring the safety of the workers. Unauthorized workers, materials, and equipment must be kept out of an area where safety monitoring is being conducted. Keeping the area clear of material, equipment, and workers will help prevent clutter, tight workspaces, and potential tripping hazards. All workers in a safety monitoring zone, or controlled access zone, must promptly comply with fall hazard warnings issued by safety monitors. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Controlled Access ZonesKeep unauthorized workers out Allow leading edge work without fall protection systems Are designated and clearly marked work areas Lines run the length of the unprotected edge Lines are 6-25 feet away from unprotected edge Background for the Trainer Discuss the specifics of controlled access zones used by your company. Consider bringing pictures of a controlled access zone used by your company for demonstration purposes. Speaker’s Notes A controlled access zone is a combination of a warning line system and a safety monitoring system. Only certain types of work, such as overhand bricklaying, may take place within the controlled access zone without the use of conventional fall protection systems. Controlled access zones keep out workers that are not authorized to enter. Typically, guardrails have been removed from a leading edge and only specialty workers, such as masonry workers, are allowed in the controlled access zone. A controlled access zone is a work area that is designated and clearly marked. The controlled access zone must be defined by a control line or by any other means that will restrict access to the area. Control lines might consist of ropes, wires, tapes, chains, or equivalent materials. The control lines must be flagged and clearly marked with a highly visible material at 6-foot intervals. The control lines must be supported in such a way that the lowest point, including sag, is not less than 39 inches above the working surface and the highest point is not more than 45 inches above the working surface. The control lines must be strong enough to sustain the stress of at least 200 lb. Control lines should run along the entire length of the unprotected or leading edge and should run parallel to the unprotected edge. Control lines are connected on each side to a guardrail system or a wall. The control lines should be erected no closer than 6 feet from the unprotected leading edge and no more than 25 feet from the unprotected edge. Overhand brick laying and related work require control lines to be erected feet from the working edge. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Safety Net System Installed under walking/working surface <30 feet below workers Inspected for wear, damage Installed with sufficient clearance Items that fall into the net removed Background for the Trainer Discuss the specifics of safety net systems used by your company. Consider bringing a safety net system into the class or pictures of a system used by your company for demonstration purposes. Speaker’s Notes Safety net systems are not intended to prevent someone from falling; they are intended to catch workers that do fall. Safety net systems must be installed as close as practical under the surface where employees are walking or working. The net shall never be more than 30 feet below the workers. Safety nets shall be inspected at least one time per week for signs of wear, damage, or other deterioration. The maximum size of each square opening in the safety net shall not exceed 6 inches across. Safety nets shall be installed with sufficient clearance underneath to prevent workers from making contact with the surface or structure below if they fall into the net. Items that have fallen into safety nets, including materials, scrap, equipment, tools, must be removed as soon as possible and at least before the next work shift. If objects are not removed, a worker who falls into the safety net could be injured. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Goals Fall hazards and basic fall protection systems Guardrails and personal fall arrest systems Quiz Speaker’s Notes Are there any questions regarding fall hazards and basic fall protection systems such as controlled access zones, warning lines, and safety monitoring? Now we will discuss guardrails and personal fall arrest systems. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Guardrail Systems Top rails must be inches above the walking or working surface Top rails must withstand 200 lb force Mid-rails must be between top rail and working surface Toe boards must be 3.5 inches Screens must be installed from top rail to working surface Background for the Trainer Consider bringing pictures of guardrail systems installed and used by your company at different jobsites. Speaker’s Notes Guardrails are the most common way to protect construction workers from falls off ramps, runways, walkways, unprotected sides and edges, and wall openings as well as from falls into excavations, holes, and hazardous equipment, etc. Top rails must be 42 inches, plus or minus 3 inches, above the walking or working surface. The rail; must be at least 1/4 inch in diameter. Steel or plastic banding is not acceptable for rails, however, manila, plastic, or synthetic rope may be used as long as it is inspected regularly to ensure strength and stability. If workers are on stilts or ladders near an edge that is protected by a guardrail system, the top rail must be raised to prevent workers from falling over. The top guardrails must be constructed so that they are capable of withstanding a force of at least 200 lb applied in an outward or downward direction. Mid-rails must be installed half way between the top rail and the walking or working surface. The mid-rails, screens, mesh, solid panels, must be capable of withstanding a force of at least 150 lb applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the mid-rail or other member. Toe boards must be at least 3.5 inches in height and cannot have a clearance greater than 1/4 inch above the walking or working surface. Toe boards must be able to withstand a force of 50 lb applied in a downward or outward direction. When screens, mesh, or panels are used instead of mid-rails, they must be installed from the top rail to the walking or working surface. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Guardrail Systems Openings must be 19 inches or less Rails must be smooth with no projections When guardrails are removed at hoisting areas, personal fall arrest systems shall be used Holes, excavations, and ramps must be protected Speaker’s Notes Guardrail systems must be designed and installed to be not more than 19 inches apart. Guardrails must be smooth to prevent punctures or lacerations to workers and to prevent clothing from snagging. The ends of rails cannot overhang posts or project out into the walking or working surface. When guardrails are used at hoisting areas, a chain, gate, or removable guardrail section must be placed across the access opening between guardrail sections when hoisting operations are not taking place. During hoisting operations, workers in hoist areas must be protected from falling. If guardrails are removed and workers must assist in bringing material up by leaning through the access opening or out over the edge of the opening, personal fall arrest systems must be worn. Guardrails must be installed on all unprotected sides around holes, excavations, and ramp edges. Holes, including skylights, may also be protected by covers. When holes are used to pass materials from level to level, two sides of the guardrail system may be removable. When holes are used as access points for personnel, such as ladder ways, a gate must be used in the guardrail system around the hole. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Prevent Falling ObjectsUse screens or panels Store materials 4 feet from edge For roofing work, store material 6 feet from edge Use canopies strong enough to prevent collapse and prevent penetration Keep tools, materials, and debris picked up Don’t throw objects down to lower levels Wear a hard hat Speaker’s Notes When guardrail systems are used, they must be installed to prevent materials from falling from one level to another. The use of screens or panels is recommended. Screens, mesh, or panels must be installed so that they extend from the working surface to the top rail. Materials must be stored at least 4 feet from open working edges. Only masonry bricks and mortar can be stored closer than 4 feet to the working edge. Excess mortar, broken masonry bricks, and any other materials and debris must be kept clear of the working area and removed at regular intervals. When doing roofing work, materials and equipment must not be stored within 6 feet of a roof edge unless guardrails are erected at the edge with screens or panels. Materials stacked near the edge must also be stable and self-supporting. Canopies may be installed over employees working below. Canopies must be strong enough to prevent collapse and also prevent penetration by any falling object. Pick up tools, materials, and debris so they are not accidentally kicked over the edge where they could fall on workers below. Never throw objects over the edge to a lower level, even when you think there are no workers below you. If you must toss items down to a lower level, set up a barricade to keep workers out of the landing zone. Have a spotter down below to keep workers from the area. Always wear a hard hat when working under workers on a higher level /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Uses for Personal Fall Arrest Systems6 feet above a lower level Worker positioning Worker restraint Climbing ladders, scaffolding, rebar Background for the Trainer Describe the specific areas, work processes, or jobsites at which your company will use personal fall arrest systems. Speaker’s Notes Fall protection is required when working 6 feet or more above a lower level. Personal fall arrest systems must be used if no other fall protection system is used (e.g., guardrails or safety nets). Worker positioning is a situation in which an employee uses personal fall protection to tie off to a structure so both hands can be free to do a job. An example is a worker tying to a utility pole or a wall of rebar so both hands are free to work. Worker restraint actually prevents a worker from getting to the open or leading edge of a roof or other work surface. Like a dog on a short leash, the worker is tied off with a short lanyard so the open edge or fall hazard cannot be reached. An employee climbing tall fixed ladders or scaffolding may need to wear a personal fall arrest system. Also, workers moving vertically or horizontally on the vertical face of a rebar assembly do not require fall protection when moving at heights less than 24 feet. However, fall protection is required when moving at heights greater than 24 feet over a lower level. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Effective Fall Arrest SystemMaximum arresting force of 1,800 lb Free fall no more than 6 feet Avoid contact with a lower level Max deceleration distance of 3.5 feet Designed to withstand twice the impact forces Speaker’s Notes The personal fall arrest system must be designed and set up to limit the maximum arresting forces to 1,800 lb. The force or impact of the resulting stop is determined by your body weight and the fall distance (arresting force = body weight x fall distance). The more you weigh, the more force it takes to stop your fall. The farther your fall distance, the more force it takes to stop your fall. Therefore, the best way to reduce the arresting forces applied to your body is to limit the distance of your fall and always use a deceleration device to prevent the sudden jolt. The personal fall arrest system must be rigged so that an employee cannot free fall more than 6 feet. This means you would have to weigh more than 300 lb to suffer arresting forces greater than 1,800 lb. The system must also be rigged to prevent an employee from contacting a lower level during the free fall. This is another reason for limiting the free fall distance. The personal fall arrest system must bring the employee to a complete stop and limit the deceleration distance during the stopping process to a maximum of 3.5 feet. You will suffer more arresting forces if you come to a sudden stop than you would if you decelerated for a few feet before stopping. The personal fall arrest system must have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Harness vs. Body Belt Body belt not used for fall protection since January 1, 1998 Body belt may be used as worker restraint Harness distributes arresting forces Harness can be used for fall arrest, positioning, or suspension Background for the Trainer Your company may want to consider destroying and discarding any body belts to prevent an employee from accidentally using them in a fall arrest situation. Put on a harness to demonstrate how it should fit. The back D-ring should be positioned between the shoulder blades, the chest strap located between the collarbone and chest, and the leg straps tightened so only one or two fingers can fit between the legs and the straps. Take the time here to have the students practice putting on and taking off the harness. Have them each go through the process at least twice so they are completely comfortable. Speaker’s Notes The use of a body belt for personal fall arrest systems has not been permitted since January 1, Belts often cause damage to the spine and internal organs when the worker falls and is stopped while wearing the body belt. Average tolerable suspension time of 90 seconds does not allow much time for rescue. Belts were only rated for a maximum of 900 lb of arresting force. However, OSHA still allows the use of a body belt when used as a positioning device. Body belts may also be used for worker restraint, which is a situation in which the worker is tied to a short “leash” that prevents him from even reaching the leading or open edge. If used in this situation, make sure it is snug around the mid-section. Make sure the D-ring is located at the center of the worker’s back. The harness will provide the greatest protection for your body in a fall situation because all of the arresting forces will be applied to the structural components of your skeletal system, including your thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders. The harness is rated for a maximum of 1,800 lb of arresting forces. The harness has a tolerable suspension time of 15 minutes, which allows more time for rescue. The D-ring on your upper back is for fall arrest. Make sure your anchor point is always above this location to limit the height of your fall. If your anchor point is below your upper back, then use a shorter lanyard to limit your free fall distance to 6 feet. Use the side D-rings for positioning. The front D-ring is used for rescue or suspension. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Connectors and SnaphooksSnaphooks lock in place Nonlocking snaphooks are prohibited Do not engage snaphooks to the following Webbing or rope Another snap hook D-ring with another snaphook attached Horizontal lifeline Object incompatible in shape or dimension Background for the Trainer Bring examples of different types of connectors and snaphooks used by your company. Speaker’s Notes Connectors include snaphooks and rings that are used to attach the lifeline, lanyard, etc., to the anchor and the harness. Check snaphooks to be sure they properly lock into place. Also make sure the snaphooks fit and are compatible with the member to which they will be connected. Self-locking snaphooks will automatically lock shut after they have been hooked. The worker must manually unlock the snaphook in order to release it. As of January 1, 1998, the use of nonlocking snaphooks has been prohibited. Rings have been known to roll out of nonlocking snaphooks. Do not engage snaphooks to the following unless they are designed for the specific application: Directly to webbing, rope, wire rope To another snaphook To a D-ring with another snaphook or connector attached To a horizontal lifeline To an object incompatible in shape or dimension relative to the snaphook. This may cause the connected object to depress the snaphook keeper and the snaphook may be released unintentionally. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Lanyards Connect harness to lifeline or anchor Stretching or tearing system absorbs shock Prevent bouncing to reduce arrest forces No knots or wrapping around sharp objects Background for the Trainer Bring examples of the different types of lanyards used by your company. Connect the lanyard to your harness for demonstration purposes. Speaker’s Notes A lanyard is a flexible line of rope or strap that generally has a connector at each end for connecting the harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchor point. The lanyard often has its own deceleration device that greatly reduces the arresting forces. Depending on the brand, lanyards may use technologies such as tearing or stretching to absorb the shock of the sudden stop. Utilizing a steel cable lanyard would exert the most arresting forces on the falling worker. The steel cable would not give or stretch to absorb any falling forces, so all the forces would be absorbed by the worker. Nylon rope will give and stretch so some of the arresting forces are absorbed by the rope. However, nylon rope also has a tendency to spring or bounce back, which would cause the falling worker to undergo numerous small falls after the initial fall. The deceleration device on the lanyard will reduce arresting forces by both giving and preventing bouncing. The lanyard will absorb most of the forces to protect the worker from potential jarring forces. Lanyards must not have any knots or be wrapped around or over any sharp objects. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Lifelines Lifelines connect personal fall arrest system to anchor Vertical—hang from one anchor point Horizontal—stretched between two anchor points Ropes and straps made of synthetic fibers Protect against being cut or abraded Background for the Trainer Bring examples of different types of lifelines used by your company. Speaker’s Notes The lifeline is used to connect a personal fall arrest system (consisting of a harness and deceleration lanyard) to an anchor point that cannot be reached by the short lanyard. In a sense, the lanyard/lifeline connection point becomes the anchor point. The lifeline is not intended to stretch to add to the length of a fall. Lifelines shall be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person and as part of a complete personal fall arrest system. The lifeline can hang vertically from one anchor point to which the lanyard must be connected at the end of the vertical lifeline. The lifeline can also be stretched horizontally between two anchor points to which the lanyard can connect at any point along the horizontal line. The lifeline can be made of a flexible line such as a rope or cable or it can be made of a strap or webbing material. Lifelines must be able to withstand 5,000 lb of force. Lifelines must be protected against being cut or abraded, so keep lifelines away from sharp edges. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Deceleration Device Dissipates energy during fall arrest Rip-stitch, tearing, or stretching lanyard Rope grab device Retracting lifelines or lanyards Background for the Trainer Bring examples of rope grab devices or retracting lifelines that are used by your company and demonstrate how they are used. Speaker’s Notes The deceleration device is used to reduce a substantial amount of energy that is exerted during a fall arrest. Most lanyards utilize a rip-stitch, tearing, or stretching technology. The maximum deceleration distance, or length of lanyard elongation or stretching, allowed is 42 inches. Consider this additional distance when checking to be sure your fall location is clear. A rope grab device travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks to arrest the worker’s fall. These might be used as part of a ladder climbing fall protection system. A self-retracting device allows the line to be slowly extracted from or retracted into a drum that is under slight tension during normal worker activity and movement. Upon the onset of a fall, the device will automatically lock. Both the rope grab device and the retracting device can be longer than 6 feet, thus giving the worker additional flexibility. If these systems do not have a deceleration device, the worker must wear a lanyard between these systems and the harness. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Anchor Points Anchors used only for personal fall arrest systems Anchors support 5,000 lb per person Located directly above you Do not tie to a guardrail Ask if unsure about proper anchor points Background for the Trainer Bring in pictures of anchor points that are used at the jobsite and demonstrate how to select and use anchor points properly. Speaker’s Notes Anchor systems used for personal fall arrest systems must be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person as part of a complete personal fall arrest system. Anchor points used to attach personal fall arrest systems must be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms. Anchor points must only be used for personal fall arrest systems. Anchors are designed to support at least 5,000 lb per person attached to the anchor point. The location of your anchor (or tie off) point is critical. In case of a fall, you do not want to swing and potentially crash into something, so you tie off directly above you. You also do not want to fall very far so you tie off at shoulder height or above. You also want to make sure the fall space, or drop zone, is clear, so do not tie off to an anchor that will result in your falling onto something such as machinery. The maximum free fall distance is 6 feet. Remember, the farther the fall, the larger the arresting forces. Do not tie to electrical conduits, water lines, guardrails, etc. Remember, there is no point in tying off at all if you plan to tie off to an anchor that will not withstand your fall arresting forces. Ask a supervisor if you are unsure about proper anchor points. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
Inspecting Personal Fall Arrest SystemsInspect before each use Check D-rings for cracking, breaking, deformation Check straps for cuts, tears, abrasions, torn stitches Ensure that parts move freely Remove defective components from service Background for the Trainer Demonstrate how to inspect your harness, lanyard, connectors, lifelines, etc. If possible, bring in equipment that has been taken out of service to show damaged personal fall arrest equipment. Speaker’s Notes Personal fall arrest systems must be inspected before each use. Inspecting your fall arrest equipment should be a common occurrence because your life depends on the integrity of the equipment. If it fails when you most need it, you could die. D-rings and snaphooks should be checked for any signs of cracking, breaking, or deformation. D-rings and snaphooks must have a tensile strength of 5,000 lb and be proof-tested with a minimum tensile load of 3,600 lb. Check the ropes and straps for cuts, tears, abrasions, loose stitches, etc. Check all moving parts to make sure they operate as designed. Snaphooks should work easily and lock correctly. Rope grab devices and retracting lifelines should also work correctly. Any deficiencies noted on the equipment should result in tagging that equipment out of service. The equipment should then be sent to the manufacturer for repair or re-certification. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Rescue Plan Limit suspension time Suspension trauma occurs when legs are immobile in an upright position Push legs against objects Get legs up to head Background for the Trainer Discuss the specifics of your company’s rescue plan for different jobsites. Speaker’s Notes Each construction jobsite must have a rescue plan in place that describes how a worker who has fallen while wearing personal fall arrest system will be rescued. Recent studies have found that being suspended from a personal fall arrest harness in an upright condition for longer than 5 minutes can be fatal. Suspension trauma occurs when the legs are immobile while in an upright position. Gravity pulls blood into the lower legs, which have a large storage capacity. Eventually, return blood flow is reduced to the point that blood and oxygen are not getting to the brain. If standing up, the person would faint and become horizontal, thus allowing blood to flow out of the legs and back to the heart and brain. However, when suspended, the person will faint and remain in an upright position. If possible, push legs against an object while suspended. Actively using leg muscles will help push blood out of the legs and back to the heart. Try to lift your legs up to your head level or get in a horizontal position so the blood does not accumulate in your legs. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Goals Fall hazards and basic fall protection systems Guardrails and personal fall arrest systems Quiz Speaker’s Notes Are there any questions regarding guardrails and personal fall arrest systems? Let’s wrap up the class with a quiz. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Summary Learn to recognize and minimize fall hazards Be able to erect, maintain, and disassemble fall protection Use and operate fall protection systems Inspect fall protection systems Protect others from falling objects Speaker’s Notes Employees exposed to fall hazards must learn how to recognize those hazards and know what steps to take to minimize them. Workers must understand the nature and types of fall hazards that might be encountered at the construction site. Workers exposed to potential fall hazards must know the correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling fall protection. They must know how to use and operate fall protection systems such as controlled access zones, guardrails, personal fall arrest systems, safety nets, warning lines, and safety monitoring systems. Workers must be know how to inspect fall protection systems before using them to make sure they are safe and will provide adequate protection. They should know how to correctly handle and store materials and how to install systems to protect other workers from falling objects. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Quiz 1. When is fall protection required? 2. How tall is the top rail of a guardrail system? 3. When do items that have fallen into safety nets need to be removed? 4. Warning lines must be flagged at 6-foot intervals. True or False 5. What type of work is commonly done in a controlled access zone? Background for the Trainer Remind employees that the quiz is to encourage further discussion and to help you, the trainer, be sure that everyone understands what was discussed. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Quiz (cont.) 6. Name two things you can do to prevent objects from falling to a lower level. 7. What do you look for when inspecting your harness and lanyard? 8. Your personal fall arrest system must limit free fall distance to 8 feet. True or False 9. How do lanyards reduce arresting forces from a fall? 10. Guardrails make effective anchor points for personal fall arrest. True or False /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Quiz Answers 1. Working 6 feet above a lower level inches above working surface 3. As soon as possible and at least before the next shift 4. True 5. Overhand bricklaying /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11017100/0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.Quiz Answers 6. Screens, store materials 4 feet from edge, canopies, toe boards, pick up tools and debris 7. Check straps for tears, abrasions, loose stitches; check D-rings for cracks, deformities 8. False, 6 feet 9. Stretching or tearing system absorbs shock and prevents bouncing 10. False, only use anchors that are designed for personal fall arrest systems. /0309 Copyright © 2003 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
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Safety & Risk Management Services UW-Stout
Copyright Business & Legal Reports, Inc. BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Fall Protection.
By: Chou Lor, Safety Coordinator Fall Protection.
Fall Protection 1926 Subpart M – Fall Protection
Safety for Working in High Places
NJSBGA APPROVED TRAINING The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable.
1 BUILDING TRADE SAFETY FALL PROTECTION. 2 BUILDING TRADE SAFETY Should fall protection be used here?
Fall Proctection Introduction to Industrial Technology Spring 2014 Mr. Shubert 1.
Stairways and Ladders 1926 Subpart X - Stairways and Ladders
Stairways & Ladders
/0403 Copyright © 2004 Business & Legal Reports, Inc. BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Walking and Working Surfaces 29 CFR
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