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Concept of Diet in Ayurveda

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1 Concept of Diet in Ayurveda
Dr. Pratibha Shah MD (Ayu.) Presentation at BMC

2 Ayurveda Ayu + Veda Presentation at BMC

3 Basic Premise Body is a microcosmic universe made up of
the five primordial elements or panchmahabhutas Ether (akasha) Air (vayu) Fire (agni) Water (jala) Earth (prithvi) Presentation at BMC

4 Body is made up of Doshas: Vaata – Ether + Air Pitta – Fire + Water
Kapha – Earth + Water Presentation at BMC

5 Vaata Controls movement and the remaining two doshas.
Is responsible for basic body processes such as breathing, cell division, circulation, sensory and motor nerve transmissions. Resides in the large intestine, pelvis, bones, skin, ears, and chest. People with vata as their main dosha are quick-thinking, thin, and fast, and are susceptible to anxiety, dry skin, and constipation. Presentation at BMC

6 Pitta Is thought to control hormones, enzymes, metabolism and the digestive processes. Resides in the small intestine, stomach, sweat glands, skin, blood, and eyes. People with pitta as their primary dosha have a fiery personality, oily skin, and are susceptible to heart disease, stomach ulcers, inflammation, heartburn, and arthritis. Presentation at BMC

7 Kapha Is responsible for strength, immunity, stability and growth.
Resides in the mouth, stomach, chest, lungs, joints, head and sinus cavities. People with kapha as their main dosha are calm, have a solid body frame, and are susceptible to diabetes, obesity and sinus congestion. Presentation at BMC

8 Lifestyle according to body type
Based on dosha predominance, there are 7 body types Each body type characteristics are listed with fine details and therefore it is possible to identify every individual’s body type. If the individual follows the diet, regimen and lifestyle according to one’s body type, he or she can keep diseases at bay Presentation at BMC

9 Body is made up of Dhatus: Rasa – Chyle/plasma/lymph Rakta - blood
Mansa – flesh/muscle Meda – fat/adipose Asthi - bone Majja – bone marrow Shukra – reproductive tissue Presentation at BMC

10 Body is made up of Malas: Feces (Vit) Urine (Mutra) Sweat (Sweda)
Presentation at BMC

11 Mental Attributes Sattva Rajas Tamas Presentation at BMC

12 Taking care of mental health
Mental health is an important component of one’s health Mind and mental attributes have been described in great detail in Ayurvedic texts Various means of maintaining mental health like meditation, chantings, charity, community service, etc. have been listed Presentation at BMC

13 Rasa (Taste) Madhur – sweet (Earth + Water) Amla – sour (Fire + Earth)
Lavan – salty (Fire + Water) Katu – pungent (Fire + Air) Tikta – bitter (Air + Earth) Kashaya – astringent (Air + Ether) Presentation at BMC

14 Goals of Ayurved Broadly speaking, Ayurved states two main
goals namely: ‘Swasthasya swasthya rakshanam’ ‘Aturasya vikaar prashamanam ch’ (Ch.Su.30/26) Presentation at BMC

15 Three pillars of Health
Aahaar (Diet) Nidra (Sleep) Brahmacharya (Controlled celibacy) (Ch. Soo. 11/35) Presentation at BMC

16 Importance of Aahaar (Ch. Sh. 6/12)
Of the three pillars of health, aahaar or diet is the most important, and that is why it is mentioned first Of all the factors that are responsible for the growth and development of the human body, diet is the most important. (Ch. Sh. 6/12) Presentation at BMC

17 Definition of Aahaar That which is swallowed through the throat
That which is swallowed and nourishes various body tissues That which is swallowed and has a conducive effect on the body Praninaam punarmoolaaharo balvarnojasaam ch Presentation at BMC

18 Types of Aahaar Based on source: Sthaavar (plant based)
Jaangam (animal based) Based on effect on body: Beneficial/conducive Harmful/non-conducive (Ch. Soo. 25/36) Presentation at BMC

19 Types of Aahaar cont’d Based on usage:
Ashit (food that is put into the mouth, e.g. Rice) Peet (food that is drunk, e.g. fruit juice) Leedh (food that is licked, e.g. pickle) Khadit (food that is bitten to eat, e.g. meat, corn, bread) (Ch. Soo. 25/36) Presentation at BMC

20 Types of Aahaar cont’d Based on rasa (taste): Madhur (sweet)
Amla (sour) Lavan (salty) Katu (spicy) Tikta (bitter) Kashaya (astringent) (Ch. Soo. 25/36) Presentation at BMC

21 Types of Aahaar cont’d Based on properties:
Guru-laghu (heavy, light), Mridu-kathin (soft, hard) Sheet-ushn (cold, hot), Vishad-picchil (clear, unctuous) Snigdh-Rooksh (oily, dry), Sthir-sar (firm, moving) Shlakshan-khar (smooth, rough), Mand-teekshn (slow, piercing), Sookshm-sthool (micro, macro) Sandra-Drav (Viscous, liquid) (Ch. Soo. 25/36) Presentation at BMC

22 Hitaahaar (Beneficial or conducive diet)
Is panchbhautik, because every individual is panchbhautik (made up of 5 components – Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Space) Has shadras, or has all or most of the 6 rasas or has rasas according to prakruti (body type) Is liked by the one eating Is clean and pure Not very hot Has been freshly prepared (Ch. Soo. 25/33)(Su. Soo. 46/465) Presentation at BMC

23 Importance of hitaahaar (conducive diet)
It is only hitaahaar that is solely responsible for shareer vriddhi (growth and development of the body) and maintenance of health. On the contrary, ahitaahaar (inconducive diet) is responsible for disease development. Although there are other factors in the development of the body, aahaar is the most important (Ch. Soo. 25/33) Presentation at BMC

24 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar
Food should be prepared and served by well wishing people or aids. The kitchen/cooking area should be clean and not congested For kings, testing for poisoning should be done before food is served. (Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

25 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar (cont’d)
Rules for vessels or containers: Ghee should be served in cast iron bowls Drinks like water to be served in silver containers, clay glasses, glasses made up of alum or glass; or boiled and cooled water can be stored and served in brass containers. Drinks like alcohol or cold drinks should be served in containers made up of clay, glass or alum. (Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

26 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar (cont’d)
Fruit juices, soups and liquid food should be served in silver containers. Dry accompaniments to the food, and food processed with yogurt should be served in containers made of gold. Food and fruits to be served on clean leaves of banana, palash (Butea monosperma), etc. (Su. Soo. 46/456) Presentation at BMC

27 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar (cont’d)
Rules for serving: The one being served should be seated on even, clean ground. The serving area should be pleasant, not a thorough fare, and should have fragrance, flowers and other things that are pleasant to the senses, around him. (Su. Soo. 46/457) Presentation at BMC

28 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar (cont’d)
Fruits, solids and other dry edibles like paapad (cracker), etc. should be placed on the right side of the plate. All liquids like water, fruit juice, soup, alcohol, etc. should be placed on the left side of the plate. (Su. Soo. 46/458) Presentation at BMC

29 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar (cont’d)
Sweets and jaggery preparations should be placed towards the front portion of the plate. After having placed all these accompaniments, the server should carefully and respectfully serve the main dishes in the center of the plate. Dishes should be served in order of liking, starting with the least favorite dish and ending with the most favorite. (Su. Soo. 46/459) Presentation at BMC

30 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Rules for the one eating: Should be hungry Should sit straight on a slightly elevated seat Should eat in silence focusing on the food Should eat not too fast, nor too slow, chewing many times before swallowing Should rinse mouth when changing rasa Should drink sips of water in between meals Should floss with herb twig or silver/brass wire, after meals (Su. Soo. 46/471, 489) Presentation at BMC

31 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Rules for the one eating: Do not eat – Before or after meal time Less or more Contaminated, uncovered, spoilt, burnt food. Left over food Food that you do not like, or that which tastes and smells bad Food that has not been cooked properly Food that has been reheated, was cooked long time back or is very cold. (Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

32 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Rule for order of rasas while eating: Madhur rasa should be consumed first Amla and lavan rasas should be consumed in the middle Katu, Tikta and Kashaya rasas should be taken at the end. (Su. Soo. 46/466) Presentation at BMC

33 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Rule for optimum serving: According to one’s agni (digestive fire) Conducive to one’s doshic prakruti (body type according to dosha) That which gets digested in time (Ch. Soo. 5/1-4) Presentation at BMC

34 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Qualitative assessment: Assessing the gurutva/laghutva of the diet: - One must evaluate whether the food is guru (heavy) (milk products like curd, cream, etc., red meat, meat of animals of marshy or wetlands, sesame seeds, etc.) in terms of digestion, - Or laghu (light) – moong daal (green gram), red rice, bird meat, deer meat, etc. Assessing the rasas of the diet: - A shadras diet is highly advocated. (Ch. Soo. 5/5-6) Presentation at BMC

35 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Quantitative assessment: Fill the first 1/2 of stomach with solid diet, guru diet taken first, followed by laghu diet; but if diet is very heavy, fill only 1/3rd of the stomach with solids Fill the next quarter or third with anupaan (adjuvant). Leave the rest quarter or one third space for action of different doshas (Ch. Soo. 5/7)(Ch. Vi. 2/4)(As. Hr. Soo. 8/46) Presentation at BMC

36 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Other Rules: Eat solids first Eat the highly beneficial amalaki (gooseberries) in the beginning, middle and end of meal Eat salad in the beginning of the meal Meals should be taken in a timely manner or when hungry. Meals should be taken in the right amount, neither too much nor too less. (Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

37 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
One should take into account the characteristics of the season, one’s body type, time of the day and other factors, before selecting their diet. (Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

38 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
After Meals Regimen: Sit straight for 5-10 minutes, waiting for food to settle down At this time, smoke herbal cigars or hookah and/or chew beetle leaf or other mouth fresheners After that, take a stroll (about 100 steps) After dinner, do the above and then lie down on your left side. Surround oneself with pleasantness (Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

39 Fundamentals and rules of Aahaar cont’d
Avoid after meals: Sleep or sit for a long time Laugh or talk excessively Avoid unpleasant sensory exposure Consume large amount of fluids Excessive physical activity like swimming, horse riding, etc. (Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

40 Anupaan (Adjutant) Anu means that which follows. Paan means a drink
Therefore Anupaan means a drink that follows or in the context of, a drink that follows meals or is taken along with it. Anupaan that is opposite in properties to the meal that has been taken, but is not contrary to it, is the best. (Ch. Soo. 27/ )(As. Hr. Soo. 8/47-51)(Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

41 Benefits of Anupaan A well selected Anupaan confers the following
Softening of food Good digestion and absorption Satiation Energy Nourishment (Ch. Soo. 27/ )(As. Hr. Soo. 8/47-51)(Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

42 A few common Anupaan Water – This is a universal Anupaan; can be taken
with any type of food. Milk – This is considered the best Anupaan, especially for the weak, tired, infants and aged, people who have fasted, traveled or done excess physical labor, or have undergone excess of any kind. Honey + Water – For the obese (Ch. Soo. 27/ )(As. Hr. Soo. 8/47-51)(Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

43 A few common Anupaan Herbal alcohols – for the lean, insomnia, fear, etc. Meat soups – for the emaciated Warm water – after any oily preparation Kanji (a type of vinegar) after a particularly or buttermilk heavy meal For the diseased, the Anupaan should be opposite to properties of the dosha involved. (Ch. Soo. 27/ )(As. Hr. Soo. 8/47-51)(Su. Soo. 46/ ) Presentation at BMC

44 Benefits of disciplined eating
Strength Stamina Good complexion Good health Happiness Long life Vitality It is rightly said that the jathraagni or the digestive fire, needs fuel in the form of diet, to sustain itself. (Ch. Soo. 5/8)(Ch. Soo. 27/342) Presentation at BMC

45 Benefits of Individual factors of a good diet
Hot food – increases taste perception - kindles digestive fire - easily digested - is carminative - dissolves excess kapha Well oliated food - all the above except dissolving kapha - acts as a building block of the body - increases strength and is good for complexion (Ch. Vi. 1/24) Presentation at BMC

46 Benefits of Individual factors of a good diet
Optimum quantity - easily digested and absorbed - does not cause dosha imbalance - conducive to long life Proper time Proper combination Increase longevity of life Proper place Eating not too fast Eating silently (Ch. Vi. 1/25) - Choking does not occur Stays for designated time in the food pipe Presentation at BMC

47 Benefits of Individual factors of a good diet
Eating not too slow - results in satisfaction - does not become cold - does not become uninteresting - does not cause indigestion Eating according to Atma Shakti (means eating with knowledge of what is good and beneficial to one self) - health and longevity (Ch. Vi. 1/25) Presentation at BMC

48 Diet recommended for frequent use
Shashtik rice(ripens in 60 days), shali rice Moong daal (Green Gram) Saindhav lavan (rock salt) Amalaki (Gooseberry) Millet flour Cow milk Lean meat Honey Aakaash jal (rain water collected at strategic high points) (Ch. Soo. 5/12) Presentation at BMC

49 Diet recommended for infrequent use
Dried flesh Dried plants Lotus stem Pippali (long pepper), Kshaar (alkalies), Lavan (salt) Meat of pig, cow, buffalo Curd Bengal gram (Ch. Soo. 5/10-11) Presentation at BMC

50 Diet to be always avoided
Vairodhik aahaar (diet which is harmful due to processing, combination or other factors): - Heated honey - Milk with sour things - Milk with fish - Curd taken at night - Ghee and honey mixed in equal amounts (Ch. Soo. 26/80-111) Presentation at BMC

51 Facts to remember Properties of diet are dependant on 8 factors (ashtvidh aahaar ayatan) namely: - Prakruti (Natural Qualities) - Karan (Preparation) - Sanyog (Combination) - Raashi (Quantity) - Desh (Habitat) - Kaal (Time) - Upyog sanstha (Rules of use) - Upyokta (User) (Ch. Vi. 1/21-22) Presentation at BMC

52 Thank You Presentation at BMC

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