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Safety in Excavation.

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Presentation on theme: "Safety in Excavation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety in Excavation

2 EXCAVATION Reference Standard IS : 1992

3 Excavation Excavation.
Any man made cut, cavity or depression in the earth’s surface formed by earth.

4 Excavation Hazards Soil Collapse Utilities Hazardous atmospheres
Adjacent structures Falls / Falling loads Access / Egress Vehicle traffic Mobile equipment Water accumulation Cave-in

5 …..Excavation hazards Cave-in / Soil collapse Improper shoring.

6 Excavation hazards Collapse of shoring Falling loads

7 …..Excavation hazards Slip & fall of workmen Utilities

8 …..Excavation hazards Vehicular traffic Adjacent structures

9 …..Excavation hazards Mobile equipment. Access / Egress

10 Soil collapse

11 So, What is required ?

12 Prior to Excavation Obtain a work permit Check Ground / Soil condition
Check Ground / Surface Water Check the Location of Water Table Check Under ground / Overhead utilities Adjacent buildings Dynamic load / Traffic

13 Soil Classification Type A : Clay, sandy clay, clay loam Type B :
Angular gravel (similar to crushed rock), silt, silt loam, sandy loam Type C: Gravel, sand, loamy sand,Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping; or Submerged rock that is not stable

14 Preventing Soil Collapse
Soil classification (Type a, b, or C) Sloping Benching Placing a shield. Shoring(Timber / Aluminum shoring Sheet piling

15 Your choice of protection
Sloping Benching Shoring Shields Designed by a Registered Project Engineer

16 Simple Sloping Stable Rock : 900 Type A - 3/4:1 530
Short term up to 12’ -630 Note :Greater than 20 feet deep shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.

17 Simple Sloping -Type A Soil
Unsupported Vertically-Sided Lower Portion <12 ft Unsupported Vertically-Sided Lower Portion <8 ft

18 Simple Sloping -Type A Soil
Supported or Shielded Vertically-Sided Lower Portion

19 Simple Sloping Type B - 1:1 450 Type C - 1½ :1 340
Note :Greater than 20 feet deep shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.

20 Benching Type A Type B (cohesive)

21 Basic components of shoring

22 Shoring in Footing foundation

23 Arrangements in Water Logged Area

24 Timber Shoring Installations

25 Utilities Underground PERMIT SYSTEM



28 UTILITIES Obtain work permit and get clearances from the concerned
PREVENTION Obtain work permit and get clearances from the concerned Electricity Water & Sewage Pipeline Communication Oil & Gas Pipe Line Use Detectors ( for More Reliable)

29 Water Accumulation Ground water Surface water

30 Hazardous Atmospheres
Never Start Work if, Oxygen Level less than 19.5 % Permissible limit of the toxic gases exceeded. More than 20 % of Lower Explosive Limit. PRECAUTIONS Ventilation to over come the above said. Blocking the source, incase of toxic and flammable gases. (Using other effective controls to reduce the level of atmospheric contaminants to acceptable levels)

31 Adjacent Structures Ensure structure stability Shoring Bracing
Evaluation by Professional

32 FALLING LOAD Gravity Weight of soil pile Weight of near by structures
Weight of personnel &equipment Vibration PREVENTION Never operate a construction equipment within 2.5 m from the edge of the excavation. Stacking the material 1 Meter away from the edge of the excavation.

33 Access Ladders – Ramps with slope not more than 15o
@ every 9.14 m Length – Normal Operations @ every 4.6 m length – Hazardous operation Ramps with slope not more than 15o Stairs cut on earth

34 Vehicle Traffic Control Measures Traffic Management Plan
Traffic Safety Vests Fencing Illumination

35 Traffic Control Device & Vest

36 Fencing Physical barricades required always
Hard Barrication shall be provided, in the fall prone areas and if depth is more Physical barricades required always Must be placed 2m away from excavation edge. Standard fall protection required for vertical falls over 1.3m Traffic diversions Pedestrian walkway diversions

37 Caution Signs Reflective Cone Barricades

38 ILLUMINATION Temporary Lightings: Sufficient Area Lighting.
Emergency Lighting with Power back up.

39 Excavation Inspections
Daily Inspections by Competent Person Start of shift, as needed, following rainstorms or other hazard-increasing event Possible cave-ins Protective system failure Water accumulation Hazardous atmospheres

40 Beyond All

41 Safety awareness – Supervision
Develope - personnel interested on Safety, Safe work procedures considering the ground realities. Awareness and motivating the supervisors concerned, Develop system to report, analyze and prevent Near-miss cases. Developing gang leaders and attitude,

42 Any Questions ?

43 Thank You & Have a Safe day

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