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Use of Tramadol in Children

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Presentation on theme: "Use of Tramadol in Children"— Presentation transcript:

1 Use of Tramadol in Children

2 Introduction Availability of potent analgesics for children is limited
Paracetamol, NSAIDs, opioids Paracetamol and regional techniques Proper dosing and be effective in relieving moderate to severe pain is still needed Tramadol Launched 30 years ago in Germany New oral tablet form (paracetamol + tramadol) Not yet approved for use in children

3 Pharmacodynamic profile
Synthetic 4-phenyl-piperidine analog of codeine Racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers Mechanisms Opioid activity Low affinity binding of (+) enantiomer to μ-opioid receptors Central analgesic effects are partially reversed by naloxone Monoaminergic mechanism (+) enantiomer : inhibits serotonin uptake and has direct serotonin-releasing action (-) enantiomer : more effective inhibitor of norepinephrine reuptake and increases its release

4 Pharmacodynamic profile
O-desmethylated metabolite (M1) 300-fold higher affinity to bind μ-opioid receptors Analgesic potency : medium 1/10 of morphine, 1/5 of nalbuphine, equivalent of pethidine, oxycodone At least the equivalent of ketamine and NSAIDs Advantages over opioids Lower incidence of side effects Ventilatory depression, nausea-vomiting (NV), constipation, sedation No clinically relevant effects on HR and BP

5 Pharmacodynamic profile
Adverse effects Overall : > 15% in adults (higher dose ↑) No report of respiratory depression and sedation Kralinsky 11.7% (n=77), increased by chronic use Finkel et al. NV (9-10%), pruritis (7%), rash (4%) Others Absence of effect on sphincter of Oddi, low potential for dependence or abuse, reduced postoperative shivering

6 Pharmacodynamic profile
Does not inhibit PG synthesis Substitution for NSAIDs peptic ulcer, asthma, renal impairment Incidence of seizure < 1% Exceeding dose Lethargy, nausea, tachycardia, agitation, seizure, coma, HTN, respiratory depression Sedation and apnea Can be reversed in 50% of cases by naloxone No serious cardiotoxicity

7 Pharmacokinetic profile
Extensive metabolization in liver (GI route) CYP2D6 sparteine-oxygenase Produce O-desmethylated metabolite (M1) Parent drug and metabolites Excreted via kidneys (90%) Ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist) May decrease efficacy of tramadol 5-HT3 receptors play a role in pain transmission at the spinal level

8 Pharmacokinetic profile
Oral tramadol Bioavailability 68% after single dose, 100% after multiple doses Onset of action : 30 min to 1 h Peak concentration : 2 h Tramadol drops (1.5 mg/kg, 4-7세) Maximum serum conc. at 30 min Conc. above analgesic level for 7 h Elimination half-life, serum clearance, conc. of metabolites are similar to healthy young adults

9 Pharmacokinetic profile
Rectal route (1-6세) Well-absorbed, low variability in absorption and clearance Max. serum conc. of tramadol : 2.4 ± 1 h Max. serum conc. of metabolite : 3.9 ± 1.1 h I.V. Max. serum conc. : 0.19 ± 0.06 h Max. serum conc. of metabolite : around 5 h Murthy et al. (1-12세) Mean serum conc. of tramadol and metabolite after single dose IV were slightly higher than adults

10 Pharmacokinetic profile
Children require similar bodyweight-related doses to adults via the IV route Allegaert et al. Total clearance of tramadol reached 84% of adult value by 44 weeks postconceptual age Documented the presence of CYP2D6 activity in early neonatal life Caudal administration Peak conc. of tramadol : 0.5 ± 0.11 h Murthy et al. Speculated the analgesic efficacy could be attributed to extensive systemic availability

11 Clinical Use in Pediatric Anesthesia
Perioperative pain treatment The gastrointestinal route The parenteral route Intramuscular Intravenous Novel routes Caudal epidural Local infiltration and blocks Chronic pain treatment

12 The gastrointestinal route
Payne and Roelofse 71 children, extraction of six or more teeth Drops 1.5 or 3 mg/kg with concomitant oral MDZ 0.5 mg/kg 30 min prior to induction Postop. analgesia superior to that of placebo Rescue analgesic (paracetamol 120 mg) tramadol : placebo = 20% : % Postop. oral tramadol 1mg/kg vs 2mg/kg 8 h follow-up : 1 mg/kg group required more supplemental analgesics at an earlier time Good or excellent in 80% of all cases

13 The gastrointestinal route
Zwaveling et al. Suppositories consisting of 25 mg tramadol 100 mg tramadol are available in some countries At least 1.5 mg/kg required for pain treatment after minor surgery

14 The parenteral route Intramuscular
mg/kg to compare with pethidine 1 mg/kg or nalbuphine mg/kg on moderate to severe postop. pain Provided equivalent analgesia In children, intramuscular route should be avoided whenever possible

15 The parenteral route Intravenous
2 mg/kg was found best for analgesic action with minimal side effects Slow IV injection decrease adverse effects When 1 mg/kg used, NSAID should be added Double-blind placebo-controlled study 1-3세, adenoidectomy, n=80 2 mg/kg of tramadol + preop. rectal ibuprofen 10 mg/kg No need of rescue analgesic : 45% vs 15% All pts. required additional analgesia at home

16 The parenteral route (I.V.)
Tonsillectomy, 2-9세 1st group : tramadol 3 mg/kg after induction, rectal tramadol 2.5 mg/kg 2nd group : proparacetamol 30 mg/kg, rectal paracetamol 15 mg/kg 3 times for 3 days Tramadol provided better analgesia with similar incidence of adverse effects Preop. tramadol and nerve block Unilateral hernia repair Preop. IV tramadol 1.5 mg/kg compared with ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block with 0.5% bupivacaine (0.25 mg/kg)

17 The parenteral route (I.V.)
Tramadol provided at least the same analgesic effect as that of ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block, with a superior effect at the time of maximal analgesia (2-3 h after injection) Incidence of emesis was significantly higher Preemptive analgesic effect with tramadol Ozkose et al., Chiaretti et al. Technical problem Not enough time elapsed to reach peak effect Further studies should be performed

18 The parenteral route (I.V.)
Continous infusion Kralinski et al. mg/kg/h to 1-16 year old children Decrease dose to mg/kg/h when benzodiazepines or barbiturates are coadministered mg/kg/h combined with boluses of 1-2 mg/kg provided sufficient postop. analgesia in 13 newborns after medium-traumatic op. 80% of neonates : Dose-dependent hypercapnia Indicates tramadol affects respiratory center during the neonatal period Monitor constantly respiratory functions during and after tramadol therapy

19 The parenteral route (I.V.)
Nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) 30 children, mean age 9.5 months, 6 mg/kg/24h Initial dose : 0.5 mg/kg Bolus injection : 0.3 mg/kg Interval : 10 min Highest dose : 1.2 mg/kg/4h Recommended for postsurgical pain as an alternative to morphine infusion or PCA in infants

20 Novel routes Caudal epidural Several reports since 1997
Parallel or contradictory to each other Koc et al. Glial cell reaction : 6 ㎍ in 10 ㎕ normal saline intracerebroventricular (rats) Disruption of membrane fluidity of BBB : 200 ㎍ in 0.2 ml normal saline into intracisternal subarachnoid space (rabbits)

21 Novel routes Gursoy et al.
Neurotoxicity : intrathecal tramadol 1-8 mg/kg in 1 ml volume after 24 h (rabbits) Clarify myoclonus and death 48 h after accidental intrathecal injection of tramadol Safety and neurotoxicity in the epidural space has not been proved in animal studies Not licensed for use by this route Murthy et al. Equal efficacy and duration between epidural and enteral-parenteral routes Use by this epidural route should be abandoned

22 Novel routes Local infiltration and blocks
Specific analgesic effects of tramadol Prolongation of analgesic effect of axillary BPB, psoas compartment block, subcutaneous infiltration Demiraran et al. (unpublished study) Herniorrhaphy, 1-6세 Equal analgesic effect through subincisional injection of 2 mg/kg of tramadol and 0.2 ml/kg 0.25% bupivacaine

23 Chronic pain treatment
Oral tramadol Effective analgesic in step 2 of WHO’s guidelines for cancer pain Rose et al. 1 mg/kg every 4-6 h in 113 children aged 7-16 years for 7-30 days Very good or excellent by 69% of parents Adverse events (NV, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, somnolence, fatigue, pruritis) were rated mild to moderate Only 12 patients discontinued the therapy

24 Summary Tramadol seems a very promising drug in pediatric pain treatment, analgesic potency intermediate between NSAIDs and opioids Several forms of systemic preparations make its use easier in children One of the options in multimodal pain treatment approach in postoperative and chronic pain in children Caudal administration should be stopped

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