# Stoichiometry.

## Presentation on theme: "Stoichiometry."— Presentation transcript:

Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry is the part of chemistry that studies amounts of substances that are involved in reactions. It could be amounts of substances before the reaction or amount of material that is produced by the reaction. Stoichiometry is all about amounts.

What a balanced chemical equation tells us
A chemical equation represents the mole ratio of reactants and products CuCl2 + 2AgNO3  2AgCl + Cu(NO3)2 1mol mol mol mol NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O 1mol mol mol 1mol 2CO + O2 -> 2CO2 2mol mol 2mol Mg + 2HCl -> MgCl2 + H2 1 mol 2 mol 1 mol mol

Stoichiometry will tell you that if you have ten million atoms of sodium (Na) and only one atom of chlorine (Cl) you can only make one molecule of sodium chloride (NaCl). Nothing you can do will change that. Like this: 10,000,000 Na + 1 Cl --> NaCl + 9,999,999 Na

Limiting reagent A reagent is another word for reactant
A reaction will stop when one reactant is used up before the other This is called a limiting reagent The other reactant is the excess reagent Blue is the limiting reagent Red is the excess reagent

Limiting reagent 2H2 + O2  2H2O Initial mol Reaction mol Final mol 0 2 8

Mass-Mass stoichemtry
Involves solving a problem in which the mass of a reactant or a product is given

Calculating the mass of a substance given the mass of another reactant or product
Write a balanced chemical equation Identify known and unknown quantities of substances Calculate the number of moles of known quantities Find the molar ratio and use this to calculate the number of moles of a required substance Mol of required substance = Molar ratio Mol of given substance 5. Calculate the quantity o the required, unknown, substance

Calculations Calculate the number of moles of CO2 formed in the combustion of ethane C2H6 in a process when 35.0 mol of O2 is consumed. The reaction is: 2 C2H6 + 7 O2  4 CO2 + 6 H2O 4 CO2 : 7 O2 35.0 mol O2 x 4 CO2 mol = 20.0 mol CO2 7 mol O2 mol

Two moles of Mg and five moles of O2 are placed in a reaction vessel, and then the Mg is ignited according to the reaction Mg + O2  MgO. Identify the limiting reagent in this experiment. 2 Mg + O2  2 MgO 2 mol 1mol (I have 5, 5 -1 = 4 mol unused) Four moles of oxygen will remain unreacted. Oxygen is the excess reagent, and Mg is the limiting reagent.

What mass of iron (III) oxide is formed from the complete combustion of 183.5g of pyites (FeS2)
FeS2 + O2 Fe2O3 + SO2 4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 molar mass of FeS2 = (2 x 32.1) = g/mol = 183.5g x 1 mol 120.05g = mol

3. Find the molar ratio of 4FeS2 to 2Fe2O3 4:2 2:1
4:2 2:1 Mol of Fe2O3 = 2 FeS2 = 1 = mol 2 Mol of Fe2O3 = mol 4. Molar mass of Fe2O3 = 2 x x 16 = g/mol mol x 159.7g 1mol = 122.1g of Fe2O3

Calculate the mass of water produced when 2
Calculate the mass of water produced when 2.8g of CH4 is burnt in the air CH4 + 2O2  2H2O + CO2 Molar mass = = 16g/mol Mol of CH4 = 2.8g x 1 mol 16g Mol of CH4 = mol 3. Molar ratio CH4 : H2O 1:2 CH4 = 1 = mol = mol of H2O H2O 4. Molar mass of H20 = 2+16 = 18g/mol Mass of H20 = mol x 18g = 1.575g 1 mol

Limiting reagent How much precipitate can you make with only 2.6mol of KCl? AgNO3 + KCl  AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)  AgCl (s) + KNO3(aq) 2.6mol KCL is the limiting reagent we only have a certain amount of it

Balance equation AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)  AgCl (s) + KNO3(aq) Determine molar ratio KCl to AgCl is 1:1 I have 2.6mol of KCl I have 2.6 mol of AgCl Molar mass of AgCl = g/mol 2.6mol KCl x 1mol of AgCl x g of AgCl 1 mol of KCL mol of AgCl = g of AgCl

If 6.3g of S8 react with Pb, how many grams of PbS are formed?
Pb + S8  PbS 8Pb + S8  8PbS 6.3g ? Molar mass of S8 = x 8 = g/mol Mol of S8 = 6.6g x 1mol 256.48g = mol Molar ratio = PbS 8 S Mol of PbS = 8 x = mol Molar mass of PbS = g/mol Mass of PbS = 1.647mol x g 1 mol = g

Determine the limiting reagent
What mass of liquid water is formed when 2.3g of H2 gas and 4.55g of O2 gas react together 2H2 + O2  2H2O 2.3g g Molar mass of H2 = 2g/mol Mol of H2 = 2.3g x 1mol = 1.15mol 2g Molar mass of 02 = 32g/mol Mol of O2 = 4.55 x 1 mol = 0.142mol 32g

2H2 + O2  2H2O x 2 = 0.284mol of H2 Which is the limiting reagent? 02 2H2 + O2  2H2O Molar mass of H2O = 18g/mol Mass of H2O = 0.282mol x 18g 1 mol = 5.076g

What volume of 0. 100mol/L H2SO4 acid reacts completely with 17
What volume of 0.100mol/L H2SO4 acid reacts completely with 17.8mL of 0.15 of potassium hydroxide? Molar ratio = H2SO4 1 KOH Mol of H2SO4 = ½ x mol L of H2SO4 = mol x 1L 0.1mol L of H2SO4 = L Acid + base  salt + water KOH H2SO4  K2SO4 + H20 2KOH H2SO4  K2SO4 + 2H20 0.15M M 17.8mL ? (0.0178L) Mol of KOH = L x 0.15mol 1L = mol

Zinc metal is reacted with 400mL of a 0
Zinc metal is reacted with 400mL of a 0.25mol/L solution of sulfuric acid. Calculate the mass of zinc sulfate formed

Questions Pg 263 Q 1, 2, 4, 6,7,8 Pg 267 Q 9

Titration A titration is a method of analysis that will allow you to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and therefore the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask. A buret is used to deliver the second reactant to the flask and an indicator or pH Meter is used to detect the endpoint of the reaction.

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