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Using Technology in the ClassroomGary G. Bitter & Jane M. Legacy Chapter 6 Learning Styles You have probably noticed that when you try to learn something new that you prefer to learn by listening to someone talk to you about the information. Some people prefer to read about a concept to learn it; others need to see a demonstration of the concept. Learning Style Theory proposes that different people learn in different ways and that it is good to know what your own preferred learning style is Your learning style is the way you prefer to learn. It doesn't have anything to do with how intelligent you are or what skills you have learned. It has to do with how your brain works most efficiently to learn new information. Your learning style has been with you since you were born. There's no such thing as a "good" learning style or a "bad" learning style. Success comes with many different learning styles. There is no "right" approach to learning. We all have our own particular way of learning new information. The important thing is to be aware of the nature of your learning style. If you are aware of how your brain best learns, you have a better chance of studying in a way that will pay off when it's time to take that dreaded exam. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • Any rental, lease, or lending of the program Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008VARK Learning Styles V A R K Visual Aural Read/Write Kinesthetic Your VARK preferences can be used to help you develop additional, effective strategies for learning Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Study Practices Select your particular preference(s) to see how you should: Take in information to perform well and learn effectively Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Appealing to Visual LearnersTeachers must keep in mind that visual learners are interested in color, layout, and design. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Visual Study StrategiesTextbooks with diagrams and pictures Highlight & Underline Remembering the format material is presented in Pictures, posters, slides Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Appealing to Aural LearnersAs teachers, we must remember that students are going to remember the funny stories, jokes, and examples we give them. Aural learners are listening. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Aural Study Practices Prefer to have everything explained to them versus reading it for themselves Discuss topics with teachers & others Use a tape recorder Describe the lesson to someone who wasn’t there Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Appealing to Read/Write LearnersThese learners will be happier with each new handout they receive from their teacher. Appeal to these learners by turning visuals such as diagrams, charts or illustrations into words. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Read/Write Study StrategiesCreate lists using headings Write out definitions Read and write your notes repeatedly Review the text Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Appealing to Kinesthetic LearnersProvide your kinesthetic learners with opportunities for “hands on” learning. They need to experience the lesson in order for them to understand it. Try using case studies to illustrate the main points of the lesson. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Kinesthetic Study StrategiesRemember what you sensed around you at the time of the lesson (ie. sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing) Recall field trips experiments trial and error Hands-on approaches Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Multimodal PreferencesYou have multiple preferences 50% - 75% of the population fits in this group Some people have equal preferences for all 4 modes due to adapting to the mode being used or requested Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Based on the MBTI® Instrument Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)Our personality plays an important part in determining our learning style. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Dimensions Extroversion vs. Introversion Sensing vs. Intuition Thinking vs. Feeling Judging vs. Perceptive Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Introversion vs. Extroversion“This indicates whether a learner prefers to direct attention towards the external world of people and things or toward the internal world of concepts and ideas. This preference tells us from where people get their energy.” Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Introversion vs. ExtroversionFind energy in the inner world of ideas, concepts, and abstractions Want to relate new information to old Reflective thinkers Prefer interaction with others, action-oriented Talk more than listen Learn by teaching others Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Sensing vs. Intuition “This indicates whether a learner prefers to perceive the world by directly observing the surrounding reality or through impressions and imagining possibilities.” Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Sensing vs. Intuition Rely on their 5 senses Detail-oriented Learners prefer organized, linear, and structured lectures Step-by-step learning Innovative thinkers Trust hunches and look for “big picture” Learners prefer concept maps and compare and contrast tables Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Thinking vs. Feeling “This indicates how the learner makes decisions, either through logic or by using fairness and human values.” Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Thinking vs. Feeling Value fairness Logical, straight-forward thinkers Prefer clear goal and objectives Value harmony by focusing on human values to make decisions or judgments Persuasive and good mediators Enjoy small group exercises Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Judging vs. Perceptive “This indicates how the learner views the world, either as a structured and planned environment or as a spontaneous environment.” Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Judging vs. Perceptive Decisive, self-starters Focus on completing the task Can be encouraged by offering self-improvement Deadline oriented Curious, adaptable, and spontaneous Postpone doing assignments Breaking down complex projects will help keep them on target Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Tapping Into Multiple IntelligencesBased on Howard Gardner’s Theory Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008What Is Intelligence? Utilizing newly acquired knowledge to resolve problems or conflicts to improve a situation. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Who is Howard Gardner? Claims that all humans have multiple intelligences which can be nurtured and strengthened or ignored and weakened. He believes each individual has nine intelligences. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008The 9 Intelligences: Verbal-Linguistic Mathematical-Logical Musical Visual-Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Existential 1 Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words 2 Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully 6 Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature 9 Existential Intelligence -- sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here. Based on his study of many people from many different walks of life in everyday circumstances and professions, Gardner developed the theory of multiple intelligences. He performed interviews with and brain research on hundreds of people, including stroke victims, prodigies, autistic individuals, and so-called "idiot savants." According to Gardner, All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition. We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students. These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together. These intelligences may define the human species. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Theory Concepts: All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
How can applying M.I. theory help students learn better?Students begin to understand in what ways they are intelligent. Identify their strengths We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Understanding the BalanceWhen students understand the balance of their own multiple intelligences they begin: To manage their own learning To value their individual strengths Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
To Help Understand How Students Learn BestTake a Multiple Intelligences Self-Inventory. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Applying MI in the ClassroomTeachers are creating lesson plans specifically geared towards addressing the multiple intelligences of their students. Students may demonstrate understanding through multiple intelligence activities. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Classroom Activities Group discussion Verbal-Linguistic; Interpersonal Journal writing Intrapersonal; Verbal/Linguistic Constructing timelines - Logical-Mathematical; Visual-Spatial Making a video Logical-Mathematical, Musical-Rhythmic; Verbal/Linguistic; Interpersonal; Visual-Spatial Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Classroom Activities (Cont.)Writing a report or essay Verbal-Linguistic Making graphs Logical-Mathematical; Visual-Spatial Designing posters Verbal-Linguistic, Visual-Spatial Communicating with experts online Verbal-Linguistic; Interpersonal Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Classroom Activities Hands-on experimentation Kinesthetic; Logical/Mathematical Composing a song Musical/Rhythmic; Verbal-Linguistic Building a model or 3-D displays Kinesthetic; Logical-Mathematical Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Does MI Curriculum Measure Up to State and National Standards?Students may represent their understanding and knowledge of the topic being studied in a number of ways using M.I. The goal is to maximize both understanding and self-esteem for students to perform better on standardized tests. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Keys to Curriculum Structure and Lesson PlanningIt is important to teach subject matter through a variety of activities and projects. Assessments should be integrated into learning. It is counterproductive to label students with a particular intelligence. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Implementation ExercisesLearning Centers Simulations Presentations Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Learning Centers Reading/Writing Center (Verbal/Linguistic; Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences) Illustration/Visual Expression Center (Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal Intelligences) Science/Experiment Center (Logical/Mathematical, Naturalist, Visual/Spatial Intelligences) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Learning Centers (Conclusion)Math Center (Logical/Mathematical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Intelligences) Build It/Paint It Center (Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical/Mathematical Intelligences) Performance Center (Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Simulations “Simulation Activities help develop students' intelligences by allowing them to experiment with real-world activities.” Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Simulations Role-Playing Debating Students get a chance to support their responses Simulation Software SimCity & Virtus Walk Through Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Presentations Students must understand The material The audience Public speaking Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Multiple Intelligence Lesson PlansLesson plans are the blueprints of teaching Including more than 3 intelligences in an activity does not provide greater benefit. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Lesson Plan Topic Goals/Objectives Available Time (days, weeks, class periods) Assessment Options Supplies Introducing the Topic Plan for using “Using Learning Centers” Plan for Using Simulations Plan for Using Presentations Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008The Components Topic What is subject matter you are teaching? Goals/Objectives What do you want students to learn? Available Time How many periods? Assessment Options How will you know if students understand? Supplies What will you need to have on hand to complete the lesson? Introducing the Topic Attention getter/ Focus Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Benefits of Using MI in the ClassroomProviding opportunities for authentic learning based on your students' needs, interests and talents. Parent and community involvement may increase. Students will demonstrate and share their strengths. Teaching for understanding Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008Countless educators have incorporated multiple intelligence theory into their work. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Putting the Styles TogetherRemember that no single measurement of style ensures that a learner’s needs will be met. It is more important to build an adaptable learning environment that presents the material in a variety of methods than try to determine each learners personal style. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Recognizing Your Own StyleEnsures you do not unintentionally force one learning style upon your learners. The more styles you address, the easier the instruction will be received by the learners. Material presented in a variety of methods keeps the learners interested and reinforces itself. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008What’s My Style? Teaching Style Surveys: Learning Style Surveys: Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
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