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Exercise Psychology ISSUES IN EXERCISE & SPORT

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Psychology ISSUES IN EXERCISE & SPORT"— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Psychology ISSUES IN EXERCISE & SPORT

2 Dangers of Exercise/Sport
Overtraining leading to burnout Especially in young players Distorted body image Leading to eating disorders Drug problems “Doping” Björn Borg Jennifer Capriati Ben Johnson

3 Stages of Burnout OVERTRAINING is when athletes train beyond the point that brings them benefits. STALENESS. When there is a lack of improvement despite overtraining. BURNOUT - a syndrome of physical/emotional exhaustion; the sport is devalued (the athlete stops caring about it) and performance drops WITHDRAWAL from the sport, either through stress, injury or demotivation

4 Self-Determination & Burnout
Deci & Ryan (2000) Intrinsic motivation: doing the sport for the love of it (ideal!) Integrated Regulation: motivated by pride/self-esteem in winning Identified Regulation: trophies, applause Introjected Regulation: team spirit, approval – beginning of STALENESS External Regulation: prize money, fear of punishment - STALENESS Amotivation: don’t care – BURNOUT

5 Darren Treasure’s research - 1
44 elite level swimmers (top college training programmes in America) Situational Motivation Scale (SiMS) Measuring intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation and amotivation Swimmers all reported quite high levels of self-determined (intrinsic) motivation Swings to extrinsic end of the scale occurred with symptoms of overtraining

6 Darren Treasure’s research - 2
Unstructured interviews 5 thriving swimmers Great “joy” when training and competing Swimming added an important dimension to their life Felt in control  INTRINSIC MOTIVATION. 5 burned-out swimmers Swimming to keep their college scholarship money Pressure to follow successful family members Wanting to finish their swimming career by matching a best-ever performance Expectations from coaches or parents  EXTERNAL REGULATION

7 Evaluating Lemyre, Treasure & Roberts (2006)
Are college-level swimmers representative of all sports? Strong demand characteristics in using tests like the SiMS Which comes first, burnout or extrinsic motivation? Useful – British Olympic team uses PoMS to spot burnout out in altered mood states

8 What is Body Image? "the picture of our body which we form in our own mind“ - Paul Schilder (1935) Not how our body actually looks A mismatch between a person's body image and their actual or ideal appearance A 2007 report by the American Psychological Association (APA) found that anxiety about body image is more common  sexualised images of women found in the media

9 Measuring Body Image - 1 Body image scales
Choose you current body shape Also your ideal, most attractive and opposite-sex attractive Measure difference between current & ideal This respondent shows a lot of body anxiety, with a big difference between CURRENT and IDEAL body shapes

10 Measuring Body Image - 2 Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) – Elizabeth Hart 12 statements with 5-point Likert-style responses Eg “When in a bathing suit I often feel nervous about the shape of my body” Score from 12 (no anxiety) to 60 (very anxious) How characteristic of you? Not at all Slightly Moderately Very Extremely characteristic

11 Evaluating measures of Body Image
Body Image scales Images are crude, don’t match the respondent’s perceptions Gap between current & ideal not valid measure of anxiety Socially desirable answers (test is TRANSPARENT) Cultural differences in ideal body shapes? SPAS questionnaire Leading questions (but some are REVERSE CODED) Transparent Likert gives range of responses (not reductionist) Tendency to sit in the middle (“moderately”)?

12 Drug Abuse in Sport Ergogenic (“performance enhancing”) drugs “Doping”
Unfair advantage in competitions Health risks associated with drugs Athletes can be banned from competitions Ben Johnson won 100m in 1988 Olympics Failed a drug test – stripped of medal Arnold Schwarzenegger admitted to using steroids during his bodybuilding career

13 Anabolic Steroids (AAS)
Most popular ergogenic drug Duplicates effects of testosterone Builds body mass and muscle strength Medical uses: wasting diseases (eg AIDS), bone growth, appetite Side effects: liver & heart problems, acne, addictive, men can grow breasts!

14 The Placebo Effect Henry Beecher (1955)
A placebo is a sham or inert medication  does nothing, but the patient believes it will have an effect Also called EXPECTANCY EFFECT How much of steroids is placebo effect?

15 Costis Maganaris’ Research - 1
11 national-level weight-lifters Diet and training was carefully controlled to rule out any confounding variables Baseline measures: bench press dead lift squat Given two tablets that were supposed to be the fast-acting AAS They were really sugar pills

16 Costis Maganaris’ Research - 2
Lifters recorded better performance & vigour All performed better on the three tests than their baseline scores Divided into group of 6 and a control group of 5 Experimental group given 2 more pills Control group told the truth about the pills Control group’s performance on 3 tests dropped back down again

17 Maganaris’ results (mean, compared to baseline)
Bench press 1 2 Deadlift 1 Deadlift 2 Squat 1 Squat 2 Placebo Group (both tests) +9.5 +9.2 +11.1 +10.9 +12 +11.7 Control Group (2nd test) +4.5 -1.5 +0

18 Ethics of Maganaris et al. (2000)
Ethics: deception, involving players in illegal activity (if it was real) Players prompted study by asking coaches about AAS Debriefed afterwards Benefits for anti-drug awareness Players went on to reach international level WITHOUT drugs

19 Evaluating Maganaris et al. (2000)
Were athletes REALLY naïve about steroids? (Research suggests AAS users are well informed about effects, etc) Being offered steroids by coach = unusual Hawthorne Effect (feeling special) Useful: shows performance boost WITHOUT needing drugs

20 Single vs Double Blind SINGLE-BLIND test
Participants won't know whether they are getting the real treatment or the placebo treatment DOUBLE-BLIND test People giving out the treatment won't know if its genuine (eg coaches not told if lifters are aware of real nature of pills) Study more valid if double-blind

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