Presentation on theme: "Exercise Psychology ISSUES IN EXERCISE & SPORT"— Presentation transcript:
1 Exercise Psychology ISSUES IN EXERCISE & SPORT SPORT PSYCHOLOGYExercise PsychologyISSUES IN EXERCISE & SPORT
2 Dangers of Exercise/Sport Overtraining leading to burnoutEspecially in young playersDistorted body imageLeading to eating disordersDrug problems“Doping”Björn BorgJennifer CapriatiBen Johnson
3 Stages of BurnoutOVERTRAINING is when athletes train beyond the point that brings them benefits.STALENESS. When there is a lack of improvement despite overtraining.BURNOUT - a syndrome of physical/emotional exhaustion; the sport is devalued (the athlete stops caring about it) and performance dropsWITHDRAWAL from the sport, either through stress, injury or demotivation
4 Self-Determination & Burnout Deci & Ryan (2000)Intrinsic motivation: doing the sport for the love of it (ideal!)Integrated Regulation: motivated by pride/self-esteem in winningIdentified Regulation: trophies, applauseIntrojected Regulation: team spirit, approval – beginning of STALENESSExternal Regulation: prize money, fear of punishment - STALENESSAmotivation: don’t care – BURNOUT
5 Darren Treasure’s research - 1 44 elite level swimmers(top college training programmes in America)Situational Motivation Scale (SiMS)Measuring intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation and amotivationSwimmers all reported quite high levels of self-determined (intrinsic) motivationSwings to extrinsic end of the scale occurred with symptoms of overtraining
6 Darren Treasure’s research - 2 Unstructured interviews5 thriving swimmersGreat “joy” when training and competingSwimming added an important dimension to their lifeFelt in control INTRINSIC MOTIVATION.5 burned-out swimmersSwimming to keep their college scholarship moneyPressure to follow successful family membersWanting to finish their swimming career by matching a best-ever performanceExpectations from coaches or parents EXTERNAL REGULATION
7 Evaluating Lemyre, Treasure & Roberts (2006) Are college-level swimmers representative of all sports?Strong demand characteristics in using tests like the SiMSWhich comes first, burnout or extrinsic motivation?Useful – British Olympic team uses PoMS to spot burnout out in altered mood states
8 What is Body Image?"the picture of our body which we form in our own mind“ - Paul Schilder (1935)Not how our body actually looksA mismatch between a person's body image and their actual or ideal appearanceA 2007 report by the American Psychological Association (APA) found that anxiety about body image is more common sexualised images of women found in the media
9 Measuring Body Image - 1 Body image scales Choose you current body shapeAlso your ideal, most attractive and opposite-sex attractiveMeasure difference between current & idealThis respondent shows a lot of body anxiety, with a big difference between CURRENT and IDEAL body shapes
10 Measuring Body Image - 2Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) – Elizabeth Hart12 statements with 5-point Likert-style responsesEg “When in a bathing suit I often feel nervous about the shape of my body”Score from 12 (no anxiety) to 60 (very anxious)How characteristic of you?Not at allSlightlyModeratelyVeryExtremely characteristic
11 Evaluating measures of Body Image Body Image scalesImages are crude, don’t match the respondent’s perceptionsGap between current & ideal not valid measure of anxietySocially desirable answers (test is TRANSPARENT)Cultural differences in ideal body shapes?SPAS questionnaireLeading questions (but some are REVERSE CODED)TransparentLikert gives range of responses (not reductionist)Tendency to sit in the middle (“moderately”)?
12 Drug Abuse in Sport Ergogenic (“performance enhancing”) drugs “Doping” Unfair advantage in competitionsHealth risks associated with drugsAthletes can be banned from competitionsBen Johnson won 100m in 1988 OlympicsFailed a drug test – stripped of medalArnold Schwarzenegger admitted to using steroids during his bodybuilding career
13 Anabolic Steroids (AAS) Most popular ergogenic drugDuplicates effects of testosteroneBuilds body mass and muscle strengthMedical uses: wasting diseases (eg AIDS), bone growth, appetiteSide effects: liver & heart problems, acne, addictive, men can grow breasts!
14 The Placebo Effect Henry Beecher (1955) A placebo is a sham or inert medication does nothing, but the patient believes it will have an effectAlso called EXPECTANCY EFFECTHow much of steroids is placebo effect?
15 Costis Maganaris’ Research - 1 11 national-level weight-liftersDiet and training was carefully controlled to rule out any confounding variablesBaseline measures:bench pressdead liftsquatGiven two tablets that were supposed to be the fast-acting AASThey were really sugar pills
16 Costis Maganaris’ Research - 2 Lifters recorded better performance & vigourAll performed better on the three tests than their baseline scoresDivided into group of 6 and a control group of 5Experimental group given 2 more pillsControl group told the truth about the pillsControl group’s performance on 3 tests dropped back down again
18 Ethics of Maganaris et al. (2000) Ethics: deception, involving players in illegal activity (if it was real)Players prompted study by asking coaches about AASDebriefed afterwardsBenefits for anti-drug awarenessPlayers went on to reach international level WITHOUT drugs
19 Evaluating Maganaris et al. (2000) Were athletes REALLY naïve about steroids?(Research suggests AAS users are well informed about effects, etc)Being offered steroids by coach = unusualHawthorne Effect (feeling special)Useful: shows performance boost WITHOUT needing drugs
20 Single vs Double Blind SINGLE-BLIND test Participants won't know whether they are getting the real treatment or the placebo treatmentDOUBLE-BLIND testPeople giving out the treatment won't know if its genuine (eg coaches not told if lifters are aware of real nature of pills)Study more valid if double-blind