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Parasitic Diseases in fishes

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Presentation on theme: "Parasitic Diseases in fishes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Parasitic Diseases in fishes
By Dr. Mohamed Sayed Mohamed Marzouk Professor of Fish Diseases and Management , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University

2 Parasitic Diseases of cultured fishes
What is meant by Parasite ? ً Classification of different parasites Protozoa (unicellular). Helminthes (multi-cellular) Crustaceans

3 Protozoa According to habitate: According to shape: External.
Internal (Blood and Tissue). According to shape: Cilliates (Icthyophthirius, Chilodonella, Trichodina). Flagellates (Ichthyopoda, Trypanosoma, Cryptobia, Hexamita). Sporozoa (Myxosoma).

4 External protozoa 1. Exteranl cilliated protozoa:
Ichthyophthirius multifillis Chilodonella spp. Trichodina spp.

5 2. Exteranl flagellated protozoa:
Ichthyoboda (Costia) necatrix and pyriformis Piscinoodinium spp. Amyloodinium spp. Cryptobia spp. 3. Internal flagellated protozoa Hexamita spp. Trypanoplasma spp.

6 Ichthyophthirium multifilis trophozoit (Stained )

7 Ichthyophonus multifillis (unstained)

8 Stained Trichodina from skin mucus scraping


10 Pathogenesis of external protozoa Skin cellular irritation
Protozoal invasion Skin cellular irritation 1. Abnormal swimming 2. Excessive mucus Skin cellular destruction 1. Haemorrhages 3. C.T capsules (White spots). 2. Erosions and ulcers

11 Life cycle of Ichthyophthiriosis

12 Clinical signs Abnormal swimming ( Flashing, circling, sluggish and itching ). Surfacing and gasping ( Asphyxia ). Excessive skin mucus ( patchy then generalized ). Pathognomonic white spots (Ichthyophthiriosis), Yellow shine or Rust (Oodiniosis). Skin haemorrhages, erosions and ulcerations. Emaciation and death.

13 White spot disease

14 Cryptocarion irritans infection in marine fish

15 Surfacing and gasping in gill infection

16 Diagnosis of External parasitic Diseases
1. History ( new introduced fish, water parameters,……… 2. Clinical signs and lesions. 3. Demonstration and identification of the causative parasites Skin and gill mucus scraping (wet mount). Stained skin and gill mucus smears.

17 Treatment of External parasitic Fish Diseases
External chemical treatment Dip treatment Bath treatment Flush treatment Indefinite bath treatment Non-chemical treatment Increase water temperature in White Spot disease Change water facility Use of ultraviolet radiation in re-circulating system

18 Types of Chemical treatments
1. Disinfectants: Pot. Permenganate. Malachite green. Formaline. Na Cl. Acriflavin. Methylene blue.

19 2. Pesticides: Chlorinated Hydrocarbones. Organophosphates.

20 Control of Fish diseases in infected fish farms
In infected earthen ponds: Drainage Dryness Disinfection using quick lime In infected concrete or fiberglass fish tanks: Disinfection with strong antiseptics

21 Hexamita intestinalis
Hexamitiosis Systemic infection caused by an internal flagellated protozoa Causative protozoa Hexamita truttae Hexamita salmonis Hexamita intestinalis

22 Hexamita is normal inhabitant of intestine
Mode of infection and transmission: 1. Infection through ingestion. 2. Transmission is from dead fish and contaminated water body. Pathogenesis Hexamita is normal inhabitant of intestine Large numbers Small numbers Systemic form Intestinal destruction No signs Intestinal irritation Hole in head Excess mucus Off food & emaciation

23 Clinical signs: 1. Off food. 2. Emaciation and tucked up abdomen.
3. Mucus shreds from the vent. 4. High mortality in severe cases. 5. Hole in the head in systemic form (Fistula behind the head exuding white material).

24 Diagnosis Clinical signs and lesions (Non-confirmative)
Laboratory ( Confirmative) Sampling ( Intestinal mucus ) Quantitative (Count/ MF) Qualitative = Negative 5 – = Mild = Moderate 30 – = Severe More than 100 = Marked

25 Can be used in food fishes Not to be used in food fishes
Treatment and control 2. Hexamiticides 1. Expulsion Sulfonamides Saline purgative (MgSO4) Aresenical (Carbersone). Murcurial (Calomel). Can be used in food fishes Not to be used in food fishes

26 Fish Helminthosis Helminthes of fishes
Helminthes infection or infestation ? Helminthes of fishes Platy helminthes Round worms Trematodes Cestodes Larvae A dults

27 Encysted metacercaria
Fish Trematodes 1. Monogenea 2. Digeanea Adults Gill flukes Skin flukes Encysted metacercaria

28 Gill flukes 1. Dactylogyridae 2. Cichlidogyridae
Cichilidogyrus tilapiae (C. tilapiae) Dactylogyrus vastator (D. vastator)

29 D. vastator

30 C. tilapiae


32 G. elegans


34 Haemorrhagic granuloma of Lernea copepode

35 2 egg sacs Anchor Lernea cyprinicae


37 Fish lice ( Argulus sp.) attached to fish skin

38 Ventral view of Fish Lice

39 Thank You

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