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The Culture in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology:

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Presentation on theme: "The Culture in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Culture in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology:
An Attempt at Developing a Research Program and Its Implications for the Contemporary Practice of Clinical Neuropsychology With Hispanics

2 Crosscultural Challenges to Neuropsychology’s Brain Theories and Clinical Practice
New York Neuropsychology Group Psychology Forum, New York Academy of Sciences May 1, 2004 Antonio E. Puente Department of Psychology University of North Carolina at Wilmington Wilmington, NC

3 Outline Purpose of Presentation Background and Biases
Assumptions and Limitations Defining Concepts Changing Face of America’s Demographics Examples from Four Neuropsychological Studies Current Efforts Pragmatic Observations Theoretical Speculations

4 Purpose of Presentation
Summary of 25 Years of Research Where Do Biopsychosocial Variables Fit in Brain Dysfunction? Searching for a Neuropsychological “g”

5 Background and Biases Not About Social Correctness; Ethnicity
It’s About Science Ethnicity Educational Professional Theoretical Sperry Vygotsky-Luria

6 Assumptions and Limitations
Philosophy Vs Science Functional Vs Organic Culture Vs Biology Individual Vs Contextual

7 Defining Concepts Culture (Shared Extra-genetic Knowledge)
Brain and Neuropsychology (Processor of Information; Information about the Processor) Intelligence and Cognition (Understanding/Tracking/Using Discrete Information)

8 Changing Face of America: A Focus on Hispanics
Add Demo Info here

9 Examples from Four Neuropsychological Studies
Background Grenada, W.I.- Hypertension & Stress Argentina- Fulbright & the Malvinas Puerto Rico- APA Visiting Psychologist Program & the Translation of Test

10 Examples from Studies: Continued
Intention Why do Ethnic-Minorities do Poorly on Most Cognitive & Neuropsychological Measures? Three Generations = Anglo Saxon Cattell and the Concept of “g” Is There Common Information Processing Across Cultures?

11 Examples From Studies: Five Attempts
Wechsler Intelligence Scales Luria-Nebraska Battery Amazon Indians Russia Intellectual Assessment (in general)

12 Wechsler Scales: I Background Item Bias on the Wechsler Scales WISC
Puerto Rican Version WAIS vs WISC

13 Wechsler Scales: II Principal Collaborators In Psych Corp:
William Hrabrick,, Aurelio Prifitera, Michael O’Callahan, David Tulsky Principal Co-Collaborators: Alfredo Ardila, Josette Harris, Andres Barona, Laura Herrans (& Monica Rosselli) Consulting Workgroup (7) Other Collaborators: 50-70 School and Clinical Neuropsychologists Throughout the US

14 Wechsler Scales: III Time-Frame Items Production Sampling

15 Wechsler Scales: IV Time-Frame: Initial Work= late 1980s-1993
Formal Work=

16 Wechsler Scales: V Items: Borrowed Items Explicit and Implicit Bias
Across Hispanic Subgroup Agreement Scoring Criteria

17 Wechsler Scales: VI Production: Using Prior WISC & Foreign Versions
Drawings Printing Pricing & Packaging Production

18 Wechsler Scales: VII Sampling: Age Sex
Educational Level (child and parent) Country of Origin Acculturation Level Language Preference of Child Socio-economic Status

19 Wechsler Scales: VIII Standardization: Examiners Methods 36
Geographical & Cultural Variability Taped Tryout Methods Tryout= 600 Standardization= 1,000 Test-Retest= 300

20 Wechsler Scales: IX Current Status: Re-constituted with Josette Harris
Possibly available in 2005 Not Aware of the Specifics

21 Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: I
Background National Academy of Neuropsychology 1979 Meeting in Orlando Luria-North Dakota Neuropsychological Battery Initial Collaboration with Golden & “Item Interpretation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery” Chilean Journal of Psychology (1982)

22 LNNB: II Failed Attempts: Spanish Collaborators: Argentina Puerto Rico
Madrid- Juan Tobal, Antonio Cano, Juan Manuel Cepedez, Itziar Iruarrizaga Granada- Juan Gody, Juana Garcia. Miguel Perez Other- Salamanca; TEA, Western Psych.

23 LNNB: III Literature Review: 500 Total Articles on the LNNB
34 on the LNNB and Ethnic/Foreign Samples 4= Children; 30= Adult Empirical= 23 (BD, Schizophrenia) Translations= 9

24 LNNB: IV Problems: Items Copyright Hispanic Subculture
Literal Translation Copyright Luria Christensen TEA Western Psychological Services

25 LNNB: V Translation: Original Translation by Bilingual Neuropsychologist Back Translation by Two Bilingual Neuropsychologist New Translation Developed Discrepancies With English Translation Reconciled

26 LNNB: VI Major Item Changes: Receptive Speech Expressive Speech
Writing & Reading Arithmetic Intellectual Processes

27 LNNB: VII Sampling: Total= 232 (men= 126; women= 106)
Mean Age= (15-88) Mean Education= 9.93(0-21)

28 LNNB: VIII Correlations with LNNB I: Range= .5356 to .7232
Education= -.48 to -.72 Scales= .52 to .845

29 LNNB: IX Next Steps: Publishing Patient Group Info
TEA/Western Psychological Corporation Copyright & Related Difficulties

30 Amazon Indians: I Background: Collaborators: Culture-free Sample
Caribbean, Latin America, Spain, Russia Collaborators: Vivian Andrade (Brazil) Miguel Perez (Spain)

31 Amazon: II First Study Task Sampling CVLT Type Task (15 words)
Words in Guaranis & Portuguese Sampling Total= 20 Guaranis (educated vs “uneducated”)

32 Amazon: III (First Study Continued)
Results: Verbal Memory similar number of words in first trial different learning curves more words total for indigenous Indians

33 Amazon Indians: IV Second Study
Sample N= 12 per group Educated vs “non-educated” Guaranis Tasks CVLT type task (15 matched words) 12 Figures of indigenous animals WMS-R Logical Memory WAIS-R Digit Span WAIS-R Block Design

34 Amazon Indians: V Second Study (continued)
Results No between-group differences “Un-educated” Indians did significantly better in motor and visual tasks than in verbal tasks in either language

35 Russia Background Luria & Vygotsky
Biannual International Luria Conference Anna Agranovich

36 Russia: II Sample Total = 40 per group USA Russia
Age (18-44) (18-43) Ed (12-17) (12-17)

37 Russia: III Methodology/Instruments Hemisphere Anterior Posterior
left/verbal Fluency Digits Forward Digits Backward Verbal Memory right/visual Ruff Figural Fluency Visual Memory Color Trails Clock Test

38 Russia: IV Results Verbal Fluency 21.75 24.18
Test USA Russia Verbal Fluency Digits Backwards Digits Forward Verbal Memory Visual Memory Clock RFFT CTT CTT

39 Intellectual Assessment of Hispanics
Add LA Poster info here

40 Current Efforts Trail Making (Chile & US)
Acculturation and Intelligence (Beta) Intellectual Assessment in Hispanics

41 Some Pragmatic Observations
Translations Typical vs Required Translators Norms Paucity of Data Heterogeneity of Groups Criterion Validity Who is the Reference Value What is “Brain Damage” Personnel Few Academics, in general Even Fewer Ethnic-Minorities Within the Field

42 Some Theoretical Questions
New, Novel, & Extremely Difficult History and Culture Do Matter Personal Manipulation of History and Culture Matter Even More Cultural Knowledge Might be the Manner in Which Natural Selection Expresses Itself in Homo Sapiens Clinical Neuropsychology Might Help Unravel This Expression

43 Answers with Questions: Where Do We Go From Here?
Is Reductionism Enough? Is the Tabula Rasa Really Blank? Does Individual Cognition Affect Gene Pool Constitution? If so, is Culture the Mechanism? Is Intelligence and Neuropsychological Constructs (e.g. Memory, Problem Solving, etc.) Equal to Understanding of Culture? If so, Does Mind Emerge from Brain and, in turn, Control Brain?

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