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A Crisis in Confidence Chapter 31

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1 A Crisis in Confidence 1968-1981 Chapter 31
What caused Americans to suffer a crisis of confidence during the 1970s?

2 Standards SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968. Element: SSUSH25.a Describe President Richard M. Nixon's opening of China, his resignation due to the Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford. Element: SSUSH25.b Explain the impact of Supreme Court decisions on ideas about civil liberties and civil rights including such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973 and the Bakke decision on affirmative action). Element: SSUSH25.c Explain the Carter administrations efforts in the Middle East including the Camp David Accords, his response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and Iranian hostage crisis.

3 Nixon and the Watergate Scandal Section 1
What events led to Richard Nixon’s resignation as President in 1974? Vocabulary: -silent majority affirmative action -stagflation Watergate -OPEC southern strategy -executive privilege -Twenty-fifth Amendment

4 Sec 1: Nixon and the Watergate Scandal
Nixon’s Policies Target Middle America Main Idea: Richard Nixon believed in giving most power to the states, but did establish some strong federal agencies while in office. Nixon Follows a Southern Strategy Main Idea: Nixon tried to win support of conservative southerners to expand his popularity. The Watergate Scandal Brings Nixon Down Main Idea: When Nixon was linked to the break-in of Democratic Party headquarters and subsequent cover-up, the investigation and scandal forced him to resign. Continued… Sec 1: Nixon and the Watergate Scandal

5 1968 Antiwar sentiment increases: Tet Offensive, surprise attack against South Vietnam; North defeated, but Americans felt victory was impossible Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated April 4, 1968 in Memphis by James Earl Ray Robert Kennedy assassinated on June 6, 1968 in Los Angeles Violence at the Democratic Convention, August, 1968 Election of 1968: Nixon defeated Hubert Humphrey

6 Tet Offensive


8 Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

9 Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

10 1968 Democratic Convention

11 The Nixon Administration
Grew up in a low-income family in CA Experienced in politics; vice president under Eisenhower Reserved and uncomfortable with people Wanted to increase the power of the President Staff: H. R. Haldeman, chief of staff John Ehrlichman, chief domestic advisor John Mitchell, Attorney General Henry Kissinger, Secretary of State

12 Domestic Policy Inflation: had doubled before he took office due to theVietnam War High unemployment Used deficit spending to stimulate the economy Froze wages, prices, and rents for 90 days Oil crisis: OPEC imposed an oil embargo on the U.S. due to war between Israel and the Arab nations of Egypt and Syria, causing a recession Kent State University: four students killed by National Guard

13 Kent State

14 First Moon Landing Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, July 20, 1969 “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” Edwin E. “Buzz” Aldrin, Jr. and Michael Collins were part of the accomplishment Collected rock and soil samples and set up instruments to monitor conditions on the moon Quarantined for 18 days

15 The First Moon Landing

16 Nixon Targets Middle America
“New Federalism” – lessen power in Washington in favor of more power for states; included revenue sharing with states Silent majority – Middle Americans Expands government’s role -Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) -Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) -Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -Clean Air Act Economy struggles – -stagflation: stagnating economy and inflation -Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

17 Chart: Inflation and Unemployment Rates, 1970-1980

18 Southern Strategy Controversy rages over busing
-Nixon nominated conservative southerners as federal judges -1971, federal courts ordered students bused to achieve racial balance -Nixon criticized court ordered busing -Won the support of those who opposed busing Philadelphia Plan – required labor unions and contractors to submit goals and timetables for hiring minorities; form of affirmative action

19 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

20 Graph: Presidential Election of 1972

21 Nixon’s Foreign Policy
Henry Kissinger; fled Nazi Germany for U.S.; realpolitik – practical politics; 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for ending Viet Nam War Détente: relaxing tensions with Soviet Union and China 1972, Nixon visited China and met with Mao Zedong Visited Soviet Union and met with Premier Leonid Brezhnev; SALT I: held number in ICBMs and submarine-launched missiles at 1972 levels for five years

22 Watergate Scandal Enemies List Wiretaps
The Plumbers: special White House unit to stop government leaks Election “dirty tricks” Watergate break-in: E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy headed break-in of Democratic headquarters in June 1972; five men arrested; Nixon tried to stop the FBI investigation – coverup; tried to bribe the defendants

23 Watergate Burglars

24 Watergate Trial Nixon elected in Nov. 1972
All five burglars found guilty Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein investigated; informer gave them information – W. Mark Felt, second at the FBI Special prosecutor Archibald Cox asked for tapes; Nixon fired him – “Saturday Night Massacre” Leon Jaworski appointed and asked for tapes Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned over income taxes and taking bribes; Gerald Ford is chosen.

25 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects

26 Analyze: Political Cartoons: The Watergate Scandal
TRANSPARENCY Analyze: Political Cartoons: The Watergate Scandal

27 Impeachment? House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach the President
To avoid impeachment by the House, Nixon resigns on August 5, 1974; “I am not a crook.” Only President to ever resign Gerald Ford becomes President with Nelson Rockefeller as Vice President (neither were elected by the American people) Watergate is the low point in American political history

28 Chart: Post-Watergate Government Reforms

29 Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 1
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Answer C A Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 1

30 The Ford and Carter Years Section 2
What accounted for the changes in American attitudes during the 1970s? Vocabulary: -Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter -pardon amnesty -televangelist -Christian fundamentalist

31 Sec 2: The Ford and Carter Years
Ford Faces Political and Economic Woes Main Idea: When Gerald Ford became President he was criticized for pardoning Nixon and failing to solve inflation and other economic troubles. A Washington “Outsider” Becomes President Main Idea: Jimmy Carter portrayed himself as a “common” President, but his inexperience hurt him when he had to deal with inflation and an energy crisis. Changing Values Stir Unease Main Idea: Cultural and demographical changes in the 1970s had long-lasting effects on politics and society in the United States. Continued. . . Sec 2: The Ford and Carter Years

32 President Ford Spiro Agnew resigned in 1973 as Vice President
Richard Nixon resigned in 1975; Ford chose Nelson Rockefeller as his Vice President; neither were elected Ford pardoned Nixon; country was against the pardon Economy in recession with high inflation and unemployment; stagflation War Powers Act: (1) notify Congress within 48 hours if send troops (2) troops stay overseas 60 days without Congressional approval (3) Congress can bring troops home by passing a concurrent resolution

33 Ford’s Policies Helsinki Accords – nations of Europe on record in favor of human rights SALTII – pledged to limit nuclear arms Trouble in Southeast Asia -U.S. did not intervene in Laos genocide -South Vietnam fell to communists in 1975 -boat people – largest mass migration by sea

34 Foreign Policy North Vietnam took over South Vietnam
American airlift rescued thousands of Americans and Vietnamese Helsinki Accords, U.S., Canada, Soviet Union, and 30 European nations pledge to cooperate

35 Transparency: Rising Fuel Prices

36 Carter Administration
Jimmy Carter wins the election of 1976 No national experience; former governor of Georgia No experience in dealing with Congress Amnesty, or political pardons for draft evaders Human rights diplomacy Camp David Accords; Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar El-Sadat of Egypt; Israel returned Sinai peninsula and Egypt recognized Israel Panama Canal – return to Panama by 2000 Recognition of People’s Republic of China SALT II limited nuclear warheads and missiles

37 Carter’s Domestic Issues
Inflation was 10 percent Created the Department of Energy to help save fuel Three Mile Island – partial meltdown of the core occurred, releasing some radiation Nuclear industry suffered Amnesty granted to those who had evaded the draft during the Vietnam War Civil Rights Affirmative action

38 Carter’s Foreign Policies
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Friction with the Soviet Union – SALT II treaty withdrawn from Senate Sanctions – boycott of 1980 Summer Olympic games held in Moscow Mariel boatlift – Cubans allowed to come to U.S., some were criminals Returned the Panama Canal to Panama in 1999 Iran seizes American Hostages – Ayatollah Khomeini

39 Iran Hostage Crisis Soviets invaded Afghanistan
United Nations called for a Soviet withdrawal Carter withheld grain shipments to the Soviets SALT II treaty not sent to Senate Carter boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow U.S. had supported the Shah of Iran, who was corrupt Pahlavi, the Shah, was overthrown by the Ayatollah Khomeini, a fundamentalist Islamic leader 1979, 66 Americans taken hostage for 444 days

40 Hostages Freed 1981 Carter authorized a commando rescue mission that ended with 8 American deaths before reaching the hostages Hostages released the day Ronald Reagan became president

41 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

42 Chart: Immigration to the United States 1971-1980

43 Transparency: Moving to the Sunbelt

44 Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 2
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Answer C A Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 2

45 Foreign Policy Troubles Section 3
What were the goals of American foreign policy during the Ford and Carter years, and how successful were Ford’s and Carter’s policies? Vocabulary: -Helsinki Accords sanctions -human rights developing world -SALTII Camp David Accords -boat people Ayatollah Khomeini

46 Sec 3: Foreign Policy Troubles
Ford Continues Nixon’s Foreign Policies Main Idea: Gerald Ford followed Nixon’s foreign policy ideas and pursued détente with the Soviet Union and China. Carter Changes Course Main Idea: Carter believed that human rights should be a guideline for foreign policy, affecting relationships with the Soviet Union and Latin America. Success and Setback in the Middle East Main Idea: Carter helped Egypt and Israel negotiate a peace treaty, but also faced setbacks in the Middle East when Iran radicals held Americans hostage. Sec 3: Foreign Policy Troubles

47 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details

48 Transparency: Camp David Accords

49 Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 3
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Answer C A Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 3

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