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Presentation on theme: "GREEN CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS"— Presentation transcript:

By Kunle Oke Oloruntegbe Mathematics & Science Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

2 TO START WITH ‘’The term green chemistry describes an area of research arising from scientific discoveries about pollution and public perception in much the same way as the identification and understanding of a deadly disease stimulate the call for a cure’’ "Green chemistry represents the pillars that hold up our sustainable future.  It is imperative to teach the value of green chemistry to tomorrow's chemists” “We believe that it is very important that university students be exposed to real-world, state-of-art examples of green chemistry (environmentally benign chemistry) in the mainstream courses that they encounter in a typical college chemistry curriculum”.  Many industries are now practicing green chemical principles. Those students who are versed in green chemistry will be most attractive to these industries, and will be able to foster the practice of green chemistry in these industries, and initiate the practice and discussion of green chemistry throughout industry and academia. Busch, D. (2000). Greening Across the Chemistry Curriculum. US Scranton Green Chemistry

3 Green chemistry is taking an independent form as an amalgam of other chemical disciplines, especially organic, inorganic and biological chemistry. The genesis of green chemistry as a mission-oriented scientific field in the modern sense might be traced o the official launch by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1991 of the Alternative Synthetic pathway for Pollution Prevention Grants solicitation. Prior to this time concern for the environment had helped to generate a large amount of research in specific areas, especially energy

4 OBJECTIVES OF THE SYMPOSIUM Reasons for green chemistry curriculum
Developing green chemistry curriculum Implementing green chemistry curriculum

5 Experts gather to discuss why green chemistry
The path that the field of chemistry has taken over the course of the past 200years is one of creativity, innovation, and discovery. It is also a path that we as chemists have followed without fully considering the consequences of either what we have created or the methods and processes we have used to do so. This is largely due to the fact that historically we have had little understanding of the impact of chemicals on human health and the environment. In recent decades, science has dramatically increased our knowledge of the various types of adverse consequences of chemicals. More importantly, it has begun to provide us with a molecular-level understanding of these consequences, thereby allowing us to design our chemical products and transformation processes in order to minimize these adverse consequences. This is the basis of the green chemistry movement, which has been bringing about a wide range of innovations throughout the chemical enterprise. It is generally accepted that if the still-nascent field of green chemistry is going to have the impact required to allow chemists to play their central role in designing a safer, healthier, and more sustainable world, we must teach the next generation of scientists and educated citizens the fundamental framework of green chemistry. (In Green Chemistry Education; Anastas, P., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2009). /

6 Biggest health dangers behind oil spill
Gas flaring constitutes problem to the living environment causing health hazards both to flora and fauna Biggest health dangers behind oil spill How should education change to better promote a sustainable future? In most universities the requirements of understanding for new chemists in the fundamentals of sustainability ethics, toxicity and ecotoxicity asymptotically approach zero. When, where, and how will this knowledge that is pivotal for producing chemists who can competently advance towards a sustainable future through their work be introduced into the curriculum? (GUEST EDITORIAL: Green Chemistry. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2003)

7 Human and animals are equally affected as well as plants
Pollution comes from many sources. The effects are diverse and grave Human and animals are equally affected as well as plants

8 SEA OF FLOATS Thousands of Chinese pack Asia’s biggest floating swimming pool to cool off from the summer heat in Suining, Southwest China’s Sichuan Province on Tuesday Jul 22, The temperature had reached 40oC. Many also resorted to jumping into the polluted Yangtze river to cool off. China is undergoing severe conditions, with the southern region experiencing deadly floods

9 Climate change and the integrity of science
Climate change represents a real threat to the existence of humanity, of living beings and our Mother Earth. Noting the serious danger that exists to islands, coastal areas, glaciers in the Himalayas, the Andes and mountains of the world, poles of the Earth, warm regions like Africa, water sources, populations affected by increasing natural disasters, plants and animals, and ecosystems in general; World's People Conference on Climate Change Climate change and the integrity of science

Figure 1. Growth in global green chemistry research and education, (top) In the early 1990s, green chemistry efforts were focused mainly in the United States, Italy, and the United Kingdom, (middle) The late 1990s and early 2000s saw green chemistry networks and GCI chapters make inroads in South America, Asia, and Oceania, (bottom) As of2008, green chemistry initiatives are underway in Africa, and gains on virtually every continent have been made. (In Green Chemistry Education; Anastas, P., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2009).

From Postgraduate Summer School on Green Chemistry, initiated by INCA in 1998 through Los Alamos National Laboratory’s two-week workshop in 2001 for 40 young scientists from developing countries to Italy's INCA consortium organized Italian-North African Workshop on Sustainable Chemistry in 2002 to promote green chemistry education in Italy, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt, the effort is spreading. Ethiopia has recently emerged as a significant green chemistry center: as of 2007, three annual workshops have already been held there. Topics such as catalysis, alternative solvents, green reagents, and research policy form the central themes of discussion in these workshops. Green catalysis, biocatalysts, selective activation, renewable sources of chemicals are others. INCA – Interuniversity National Consortium

12 OBJECTIVES OF FIRST COLLEGE-LEVEL COURSE IN GREEN CHEMISTRY taught by Professor Terry Collins at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) To understand sustainability ethics as they apply to chemistry and establish the arguments for recognizing "green" criteria. To reflect on motives and forces that have entrenched technologies that are obviously or potentially harmful to the environment (7). To define "green chemistry", place its development in a historical context, introduce the 12 Principles, and study successful examples of green technologies. To identify the key challenges facing green chemistry and consider what will be required to solve them (8). To identify reagents, reactions, and technologies that should be and realistically could be targeted for replacement by green alternatives. To understand the history, meaning, and importance of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants and endocrine disruptors which present major environmental and health threats. To become familiar with leading research in green chemistry and the related fields of public health and sustainability science

13 Developing Curriculum in Green Chemistry Objectives of the Curriculum
To understand the importance of Green chemistry for sustainability To design and interpret greener route to the traditional chemical reactions To learn how to apply green chemistry in the laboratory To learn how to apply green chemistry daily in our environment

14 Raplh Tyler, Hilda Taba, Wheeler or Lawton? Consensus of ideas
What model to use? Raplh Tyler, Hilda Taba, Wheeler or Lawton? Consensus of ideas Selection of objectives Selection of learning experiences Organization of learning experiences Evaluation of outcomes Derive objectives from: (i) The learners (ii) The society (iii) The subject specialists Filter them through psychological and philosophical screen (Urebvu, 1987)

15 Primary sources of objectives and learning experiences
What constitutes the environment The environment – of what important it is Changes in the environment Our contributions to these changes How do these changes affect the learners and the society Preventing undesirable changes from taking place Combating the effects

16 Contributions from subject specialists
What green chemistry is The 12 principles of green chemistry The 9 green engineering green principles Application of the principles in chemical processes and practices Advantages of green chemistry Sources, distribution and impacts of atmospheric pollutants

17 What green chemistry is?
Definition: the use of chemistry techniques and methodologies that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of feedstocks, products, byproducts, solvents, reagents, etc. that are hazardous to human health or the environment Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry provide a framework for scientists and engineers to use when designing new materials, products, processes and systems. They focus thinking in terms of sustainable design criteria Prevention - It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries - The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used. Design for Energy Efficiency - Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. Reduce Derivatives - Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention - Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention - Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.

18 Six are applicable to green analytical methodology
Prevention of waste Use safer solvents Design for energy efficiency Reduce use of derivatives Use real-time analysis Select safe substances to use Simply stated, “Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry techniques and methodologies that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of feedstocks, products, byproducts, solvents, reagents, etc. that are hazardous to human health or the environment.” [Anastas, P. T., Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1999, 29(3): ] Thus, an important goal of green chemistry is to reduce hazards associated with products and processes that are essential to the world economy and to sustain the high quality of living that we enjoy through chemistry. Green chemistry seeks to achieve this goal by reducing or eliminating as much risk as possible associated with chemical processes. If chemical hazards can be reduced then risks from using or being exposed to chemicals is also reduced. Hazards from chemicals go beyond toxicity (acute and chronic) to include carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, explosivity, flammability, and corrosivity as well as include environmental impacts such as atmospheric damage and global climate change. [Anastas, P. T., Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1999, 29(3): ]

19 Waste Materials Hazard Risks Energy Cost GREEN CHEMISTRY
IS ABOUT REDUCING Materials Hazard Risks Energy Cost

20 Topics Sourced from subject specialists could include
Ozone hole and troposheric air pollution: carbon dioxide as a replacement for CFCs and hydrocarbon blowing agents; surfactants for carbon dioxide so that carbon dioxide can be used to replace VOCs. Pesticides: readily biodegradable marine antifoulant as replacement for tributyltin oxide; selective pesticides as replacements for broad spectrum pesticides. Toxic organic chemicals (e.g. dioxins): activators of hydrogen peroxide to replace chlorine bleaching agents. Polluted water and sewage treatment: biodegradable scale inhibitors and dispersing agents as a replacement for polyacrylate polymer. Solid waste, landfills and closed loop recycling: Petretec process for conversion of PET back into its monomers and reformation into virgin PET. Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry provide a framework for scientists and engineers to use when designing new materials, products, processes and systems. [Anastas, P. T. and Warner, J. C. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press: New York, 1998.] The principles focus thinking in terms of sustainable design criteria and have proven to be the source of innovative solutions to a wide range of problems. About half of these principles apply to green analytical chemistry. Those that are most relevant to, or most commonly encountered in, analytical chemistry are listed in the next slide.

21 Specific industrial processes from chemistry
Haber process- production of ammonia Contact process – of tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid Production of industrial chemicals Use of catalysts in green chemistry – teaching the basic structures and uses of zeolites and other catalysts Teaching green chemistry as a tool to sustainability and industrial ecology

22 Organization of learning experiences, and Implementation
The learning experiences itemized above (not exhaustive) can be organized sequentially on interdisciplinary basis and implemented (taught) through different modes such as Lecture Classroom discussion Laboratory exercises Outdoor activities and projects Seminar presentation The golden rule is that teaching must be in harmony with practice (Wardencki et al, 2004)

23 Evaluation of learning outcomes
Three levels of learning outcomes need be evaluated. These are: Concept formation Skill development Development of appropriate attitude (Green chemistry is a course meant to develop more of skills and appropriate green attitude) Assessment could be through Performance assessment Practical exercises and observation Journal keeping and seminar presentation Project design and project work

24 CONCLUSION Students of today and the scientific community of tomorrow would benefit from the introduction of green chemistry curriculum in the secondary schools. Increasing communication and awareness among chemists, engineers, policy makers and the general public will lead to a greater responsibility for environment al and global issues. Students will enter the professional world with knowledge of the weaknesses of current industrial processes, coupled with motivation for the development of solutions based on green chemistry principles. Green chemistry can provide the required knowledge and awareness to develop the technologies that are necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of a sustainable world. Green Chemistry in the Curriculum (Birgit Braun et, 2006). .

25 Bibliography Advanstar Communication Inc (2010). Green Chemistry. E-Separation Solutions, Sept. 14, 2009 Anastas, P.T. & Beach, E.S. Changing the Course of Chemistry. Center for Green Chemistry and Engineering, Chemistry, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Chemical Engineering Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 Cann, M. C. (2009). Greening the chemistry lecture curriculum: Now is the time to infuse existing mainstream textbooks with green chemistry. ACS Symposium Series 1011 Collins, T. (2003). The importance of ethics, toxicity and ecotoxicity in chemical education and research. Green Chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003 Gron, L.U. (2009). Green analytical chemistry: application and education. ACS Symposium Series, 1011. Keith, L.H. Environmental and Chemical Safety Institute. Kitchens, C., Charney, R. Naistat, D., Farrugia, J., Clarens, A., O’Neil, A. Lisowski, C.& Braun, B. (2006). Completing our education. green chemistry in the curriculum. Journal of Chemical Education, 83, 8, 1126. Stephen, K. R. & En Waashington (2001). Green Chemistry. Chemical & Engineering News, 79, 29, 27-34 Wardencki, W., Curylo, J. & Nameisnik, J. Green chemistry - future and current issues. Polish journal of Environmental Studies, 14, 4, Green Chemistry in the High School: Featuring Curriculum “”for Teachers and by Teachers” Beyond benign: green chemistry curriculum.mht Green Chemistry with Zeolite Catalysts. Chemical Engineering tools and Information Green It: Taking the Green Path. Environmental Development in Malaysia.mht



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