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English Constitutional Monarchy

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Presentation on theme: "English Constitutional Monarchy"— Presentation transcript:

1 English Constitutional Monarchy

2 The Seesaw of King & Parliament: 1603-1689

3 Background ( )

4 The Elizabethan “Bargain”
Magna Carta, 1215 The Elizabethan “Bargain” Parliament: Power to tax. Debates and amends bills. The Monarch: Had the royal perogative on foreign policy.

5 The Early Stuarts ( )

6 The Stuart Monarchy

7 James I [r. 1603-1625] Wanted absolute power.
Quickly alienated Parliament & Puritans. Problems he faced: Large royal debt. He wasn’t English didn’t understand customs & law! Believed in Divine Right of Kings. Pro-Catholic sympathies. Clashed with Parliament He raised money without Parliament’s consent!

8 King James Bible, 1611

9 Charles I [r. 1625-1649] Pro-ceremonies, rituals and pro-catholic.
Uniformity of church services imposed. Anglican Book of Common Prayer for both England AND Scotland. Constantly at war with Spain and France and need £! Parliament denied funds. Wanted to stop Star Chamber He agrees to sign Petition of Rights (1628) to get money, but ignores it!!!! He dissolved Parliament

10 The “Short” Parliament
Calls Parliament back after 20 yrs. Rebellion in Scotland Charles need £ war with France & Scotland They demanded more civil liberties Charles dismisses them after 3 weeks. Charles I by Van Dyck (1633)

11 The “Long” Parliament In session from 1640 to 1660.
Triennial Act passed  Parliament must be called in session at least once every 3 years and can’t be adjourned without its own consent! Charles tries to arrest 5 MPs unsuccessful The Civil War has begun!!!!

12 The Civil War ( ) What will be the most important lesson that comes out of the civil war?

13 Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians (Roundheads)
Civil War ( ) Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians (Roundheads) House of Lords N & W England Aristocracy Large landowners Church officials More rural House of Commons S & E England Puritans Merchants Townspeople More urban

14 Playskool Version of the English Civil War
Roundheads Cavaliers

15 Oliver Cromwell [ ] Officer of the Parliamentary army  the New Model Army. Led the army that defeated royal forces and now controlled the government. He wore…a plain cloth-suit, which seemed to have been made by a poor tailor; his shirt was plain, and not very clean; and I remember a speck or two of blood upon his collar…his face was swollen and red, his voice sharp and untunable, and his speech full of passion. [Sir Philip Warwick, a Royalist, 1640]

16 The English Civil War: 1642-1645

17 The Battle of Naseby [re-enactment], 1645
Charles I is defeated and is handed over to Parliament.

18 The Interim ( )

19 The “Interregnum” Period [1649-1660]
The Commonwealth ( ) The Protectorate ( )

20 Pride’s Purge, 1648 Cromwell purges the House of Commons of moderates (anyone not anti-monarchy). The results is the “Rump” Parliament.

21 Regicide  Beheading of Charles I, 1649
The vote by the Rump Parliament was

22 The Puritan Commonwealth [1649-1653]
Cromwell rules with the Rump Parliament. Constitutional Republic Created a constitution  Instrument of Government An executive [Cromwell] No monarch. Europe is appalled  other nations don’t recognize it.

23 Cromwell Dissolves the “Rump” Parliament in 1653

24 The Protectorate [1653-1660] Cromwell tears up Constitution.
Dismisses the Rump Parliament. Declares martial law. Military dictator. Religious tolerance, except Catholics. Crushes a rebellion in Scotland. Crushes a rebellion among the Catholics of Ireland  kills 40% of all ethnic Irish!

25 Cromwell—Lord Protector or King??
England longs for an end to martial law! Cromwell dies in 1658 and his son, Richard, takes over, but is weak and lasts for only two years.

26 The Restoration ( ) Parliament could no more exist without the Crown than the Crown without Parliament. This was the most important lesson of the English Civil War!

27 King Charles II [r ] Had charm, poise, & political skills [unlike his father]. Restored the entertainement. Favored religious toleration. Disbanded the Puritan army and pardoned most rebels. Act of Uniformity- Clergy must use the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. (1662)

28 Great London Plague, 1665

29 Great London Fire, 1666

30 King Charles II [r. 1660-1685] 1673  Test Act
Allows only Anglicans for government and military positions. 1670  Treaty of Dover saying he will accept money from France if he converts to Catholicism, when possible To Charles II, Louis XIV is an ideal ally against the Dutch.

31 King James II [r ] Outright Catholic without any of Charles II’s shrewdness or ability to rule and compromise. Alienated EVERYONE! Provoked the problems Charles II avoided! Introduced Catholics into the High Command of military and as personal advisors. Kept an army outside of London. Claimed the power to suspend with Acts of Parliament.

32 The Glorious Revolution

33 The “Glorious” Revolution: 1688
Whig & Tory leaders offered the throne jointly to James II’s daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] & her husband, William of Orange. He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV. He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.

34 English Bill of Rights [1689]
Settled issues between King & Parliament Model for the U. S. Bill of Rights Formed a base for increasing civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England. Main provisions: The King could not suspend the laws. The King could not interfere with justice. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently. The monarch must be a Protestant. Religious toleration. Prime Minister Positions are created (Walpole)

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