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Conflict in Europe 1935 - 1945 By S. Angelo Head Teacher History East Hills Girls Technology High School 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Conflict in Europe 1935 - 1945 By S. Angelo Head Teacher History East Hills Girls Technology High School 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conflict in Europe 1935 - 1945 By S. Angelo Head Teacher History East Hills Girls Technology High School 2009

2 Growth of European tensions Dictatorships in Germany & Italy League of Nations and collapse of collective security Abyssinia Spanish Civil War Britain, France and the policy of appeasement: - assessment Significance of the Nazi-Soviet Non- Aggression Pact

3 Path to the Dictatorship in Germany 1920 Hitler announced his party policies Freikorps – Kapp Putsch NSDAP – Hitler assumes control 1921 Allies present reparations to Germany Polish irregulars attempt to seize Upper Silesia; Allies agree to plebiscite & 60% voted to join Germany – beginning of the move for a Greater Germany 1923 French troops occupy Ruhr: State of Emergency declared Stresemann declared end to passive resistance and resumes reparation payments M unich Beer Hall Putsch – Hitler used trial to highlight NSDAP aims 1924 Dawes Plan for repayments of reparations; easing rate & economic stresses Hitler writes Mein Kamp; released from prison early

4 Dictatorship in Germany 1927 Germany admitted to League of Nations Inter-Allied Commission withdrawn from Germany 1929-30 Allies agree to Young Plan – further easement of reparation payments Nazis win 107 seats in Reichstag 1932 Presidential elections – Hindenburg won over Hitler Lausanne Conference to end reparations NSDAP largest party in Germany – 230 seats in Reichstag

5 Dictatorship in Germany 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor Reichstag Fire – Decree for the Protection of the State against Communist Acts of Violence Endangering the State Enabling Act 1934 Death of Hindenburg Law on the Head of State of the German Reich – the Fuhrer and the Reich Chancellor

6 Dictatorship in Italy 1919 First Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan (Fascists or Blackshirts) Fascists broke up Socialist demonstration in Milan 1921 Fascists won 35 seats in national elections Fascist seize control of Ravenna (Ferrara & Bologna – 1922) 1922 Socialists declare general strike Mussolini began march on Rome Fascists seize power after King Victor Emmanuel gave in to fear and invited Mussolini to form a government

7 HITLERS AIMS NEWTON Hitler-Papen govt 1933 Emergency Decree 28/2/1933 Elections – 43.9% NSDAP Goebbels – propaganda Enabling Act Vatican Concordat Political parties banned Germany leaves League of Nations 1934 Hitler visits Mussolini in Venice Pro-Nazi coup lead to murder of Dollfuss – Schuschnigg – Austrian Chancellor Death of Hindenburg – Hitler becomes Fuhrer Totalitarianism 1935 – rearmament; allied confusion 1936 – Rhineland & Spain 1937 – alliance with Italy – seeks alliance with Britain Mussolini visits Berlin Hossbach Memorandum on Lebensraum Italy, Germany & Spain – Anti-Comintern Pact Lord Halifax visits Hitler at Berchtesgaden 1938 – Austria & Sudentenland CANTWELL Hitler – frustrated artist Fought in WWI & profound nationalist – common with Mussolini Drexler et al formed a German Workers Party to revolutionise the nation – 1919 (just before the creation of the Fascist Party) Drexler saw the potential in Hitler to be an outstanding orator – another trait he had in common with Mussolini Hitlers Brownshirts & Mussolinis Blackshirts – indoctrinated militia Mein Kampf & Doctrine of Fascism Nazi salute came from Mussolinis Blackshirts Hitler & Mussolini arrested Hitler & Mussolini recognised need for public support Hitler & Mussolini resorted to violence if necessary to achieve aims

8 HITLERS AIMS WEBB Ideology – lebensraum & racial purity Pragmatist – pursue policies that achieved short term gains even if it contradicted his long term gains Opportunist Revisionist Autarky – self sufficiency France first Creation of GrossDeutschland Poland, Czechoslovakia Anschluss Said what people wanted to hear Not military dominance but equality Peaceful Europe Return of territory taken in 1919 Bulwark against spread of communism Last territorial demand in Europe DENNETT & DIXON Rescue the German people from the shame of defeat in WWI Free Germany from restrictions of Treaty of Versailles Could only be achieved by the sword Supported by military Harnessed economic strength of Germany Germany still relied on imported raw materials (iron ore, copper, rubber, oil) Built up military strength – but still under equipped & short of munitions German navy could not match Britains

9 MUSSOLINIS AIMS NEWTON Mussolinis attack on Abyssinia was a blow against the Stresa Front Invasion of Abyssinia caused concerns for Britain & France Hoare-Laval Pact – Britain & France wanted to buy off Mussolini & divide Abyssinia up - collapse of negotiations Hitler noted western powers preferred appeasement to confrontation This showed weakness of Britain & France Mussolini sent 1000s of troops to help Franco Mussolini proposed the Munich Agreement that led to Germany gaining the Sudentenland CANTWELL Totalitarian Regimes Extensive legal & constitutional changes Elimination of political opponents & parties Propaganda Reduction of personal freedoms & rights Economy & workforce accountable to State Direct impact on culture and society (youth groups, education, women, art, music, church) Use of terror & repression Secret police forces Control of media & publishing National armies for aggressive purposes Intolerance of alternate political systems Single dictator as leader Belief regimes could not be defeated

10 MUSSOLINIS AIMS WEBB Major social, economic & political problems post WWI Hoped to make territorial gains at Peace Conference – not met High unemployment, civil disorder – Mussolini grabbed power in 1922 with march on Rome Set up Corporate State; Secret police Major expansion in primary & secondary education Improved working conditions Hydro-electric schemes Pontine marshes drained Lateran Accord – Vatican & Italy Italian strength & military glory Foreign policy similar to Germany Land; rearmament; conscription, military strength SERIOUS MAJOR EUROPEAN POWER DENNETT & DIXON Pledged to restore Italy to its former glory Roman/Italian empire Invaded Abyssinia 1935 Italy had been poorly treated by the Treaty of Versailles Program of modernisation hindered by Small scale primary industry Reliance on imports (raw materials – coal, oil, scrap iron, copper, rubber) Britain controlled naval bases at Gibraltar & Suez & could blockade Italian supplies Italy relied on British ships

11 HISTORIANS Medlicott: The Coming of War in 1939 Hitlers aims remained the same - lebensraum Hitler was an opportunist Kershaw: Hitler 1936-45 – Nemesis Expansion Hitler used politics to restore Germanys greatness Taylor: Origins of the Second World War War produced the demand for lebensraum Mack Smith: Mussolini Italians needed to have their character forged in battle Mussolini proud of the terrorist methods used by them in Spanish Civil War Thomson: Europe Since Napoleon Hitler main beneficiary from Italian-German relationship & Spanish Civil War Hitler kept Mussolini pre-occupied in Spain while extending German influence in the Balkans: Italy was Germanys cats paw

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