2 Nouns: Gender and Number Nouns in French are either Masculine or Feminine. The gender of the noun is usually memorized with the spelling. Its gender is also indicated by the article. In most cases, plurals are indicated by an “s”Masculine Feminine Plural“the” le la les’ a ‘ un une desLe garçon = the boyUn garçon = a boyLes garçons = the boysDes garçons = (some) boysLa fille = the girlUne fille = a girl
3 Subject Pronouns Singular Plural Je = I Nous = we Tu = you Vous = you Il = he Ils = theyElle = she Elles = they (girls)
5 Adjectives and GenderIn French, the ending of an adjective change depending on whether the noun it is describing is feminine or masculine, singular or plural.If an adjective is feminine, you add an “e” to the end of it, unless it already has an “e”Masculine Example:“Chaud” is an adjective meaning “hot”. “Un bain” is a noun meaning “bath”. Together they become:Un bain chaud A hot bathFeminine example:“une boisson” is a noun meaning a drink. It is a feminine noun so the adjective “chaud” will have an “e” added to the end of it. Together they will become:Une boisson chaude A hot drinkRemember if the adjective already has an “ e “ you do not add another one.Example:Un garçon bizarre Une fille bizarre
6 Adjectives and NumberIf a noun is plural, then the adjective must also be made plural. To make an adjective plural, you add an “s” to the end of the adjective, unless it already ends in “s” or “x”.Example:Le bain chaud Les bain chaudsLa boisson chaude Les boissons chaudes
7 Adjectives with Irregular Feminine Forms There are some adjectives that have feminine form that are spelt differently. Instead of simply adding “e”, they often change or double their consonants before adding the “e”.Masculine FeminineBon bonneGros grosseAncien ancienneNouveau nouvelleBeau belleVieux vieilleLong longue
8 Demonstrative Adjectives Like other adjectives, demonstrative adjectives have a masculine, feminine and plural.They mean “this” or “that”Masculine Feminine PluralCe Cette CesJ’aime ce livre I like this/that book.A common contraction is ce + est = c’estC’est un chien. This/that is a dog.
9 Possessive Adjectives In French, possessive adjectives agree in gender and in number with their noun i.e. they agree with the thing/person that is possessed and NOT with the owner.Masculine Feminine PluralMy mon ma mes (je)Your ton ta tes (tu)His/her son sa ses (Il/elle)Our notre notre nos (nous)Your votre votre vos (vous)Their leur leur leurs (ils/elles)Kate : C’est mon frère et ma sœur.This is my brother and my sister.Note: even though Kate is a girl, she uses the masculine form of “mon” when she is talking about her brother because He is a boy. In French, the “my” must agree with the brother, not with the girl who is talking about her brother.Challenge: This is her pencil and her chair That is his pencil and his chair.C’est son crayon et sa chaise C’est son crayon et sa chaise.
10 Simple Verbs - Present Tense ER verbs RE verbs IR verbsRegarder – to watch Attendre – to wait Finir – to finishJe regard j’attends je finisTu regardes Tu attends tu finisIl regard Il attend Il finitElle regard Elle attend Elle finitQui regard Qui attend Qui finitOn regard On attend On finitNous regardons nous attendons nous finissonsVous regardez vous attendez vous finissezIls regardent Ils attendent Ils finissentElles regardent Elles attendent Elles finissentNote : « regarder » « attendre » and « finir » are Infinitives (i.e. verbs before they are conjugated)
11 ALLER Aller – to go Je vais (I am going) Nous allons (we are going) Tu vas (You are going) Vous allez (You are going)Il va (He is going) Ils vont (They are going)Elle va (She is going) Elles vont (They are going)
12 Negation 1, 2 rule of Negation 1) One verb and only 1 verb goes inside the ne....pas sandwhich – the 1st verb.2) If there is a 2nd verb in the sentence, it stays outside the ne...pas sandwich (ie. comes after the “pas”)In English, we form the most basic negative in a variety of ways involving the word NOT: don’t, doesn’t, isn’t’; aren’t, etc.In French, “not” is represent by the words “ne...pas” surrounding the action that is being negated.Je vais à l’école becomes: Je ne vais pas à l’ecole.I’m going to school I am not going to school.Je veux un biscuit Becomes Je ne veux pas un biscuit.I want a cookie I don’t want a cookie.The same rule applies even if there are two verbs in the sentence.Je peux aller becomes Je ne peux pas aller.I can go I can’t go.Tu vas finir becomes Tu ne vas pas finir.You are going to finish You aren’t going to finish.
13 Forming Questions by Inversion In English, normal word order in a simple sentence is “subject verb”. (I can; you want; he is going). When we want to form a question, we can often simply reverse this word order.(Can I? May I? Is he?). In French, we can also reverse (or invert) the regular word to form a question. In French we separate and emphasize the inversion by putting a hyphen between the two words.Tu veux un biscuit Becomes Veux-tu un biscuit?Nous faisons du ski Becomes Faisons-nous du skiNote that there are a few exception to be aware of:Je peux manager de la gomme Puis-je manger de la gomme?Peux becomes puis only in the 1st person (je) form.Il va à l’école becomes Va-t-il à l’école?With avoir and aller in the 3rd person singular (il/elle), a “t” is inserted between the vowels.
14 Contractions of the preposition “à” and “de” À + the place = means « to the » « at the » or « in the » but the “to” and “the” are contractedÀ + le = au Je vais au magasin I am going to the store.À + la = à la Je vais à la ville I am going to the city.À + les = aux Je vais aux magasins I am going to the stores.De + the place = means “from the”De + le = du Je viens duDe + la = de la Nous venons de laDe + les = des Ils viennent desDe + object (like food) often means “some” or “ any”
15 To STUDY You need to study… Months, days, numbers, seasons, body parts ER/IR/RE verbsIrregular verbs: avoir, être, aller, fairePouvoir/Vouloir (last new thing we learned).Expressions with avoir and êtreIn, under, beside, on top etc