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Return to Menu Return to Menu General Writing General Writing Practical Writing Practical Writing.

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2 Return to Menu Return to Menu General Writing General Writing Practical Writing Practical Writing

3 The following patterns are often used in formal writing to describe advantages and disadvantages. Describing advantages and disadvantages AdvantageDisadvantagesTransition signals 1) Since its appearance, people have benefited a lot from it. 2) … is/are playing an increasingly significant role / part in our lives / society. 1) It has brought much harm to humans. 2) People take opposing views of … 3) Some people take the opposing view that … 1) to indicate order or sequence: first, second, next, finally, before, after, afterwards, soon, later, now, then, at the same time, on the left, on the right, close to, above, below… 2) to indicate an additional idea: additionally, besides, in addition, furthermore, also, similarly, likewise, in the same way, … 3) to indicate an contrasting idea: though, although, even though, instead, at any rate, but, yet, neither, despite, in spite of, nevertheless, whereas, on the other hand…

4 Describing advantages and disadvantages AdvantageDisadvantagesTransition signals 3) We can hardly live without … 4) … is/are endowed with many advantages. 5) Nowadays no one can escape from the influence of … 4) While other people think the other way… / take a different attitude (an opposing view) … 5) Nothing can be perfect and everything has two sides, … is / are not an exception. 6) Nothing should be carried to extremes. 4) to indicate a generalization: in general, general speaking, as a general rule, on the whole… 5) to indicate a possibility or certainty: possibly, perhaps, clearly, no doubt, certainly, evidently… 6) to indicate a conclusion: above all, thus, as a result, in conclusion, in summary, accordingly, consequently, therefore…

5 Exercises Describing advantages and disadvantages AdvantageDisadvantagesTransition signals 6) There is no doubt that both … and … have their own advantages. 7) Despite / In spite of these problems, I think its advantages still outweigh its disadvantages. 7) We should take a correct attitude towards … 8) We should make full use of its benefits, and meanwhile try to avoid its disadvantage. 7) to introduce a cause or reason: because, as, for, due to, since… 8) to introduce an example: for example, for instance, that is, namely… 9) to emphasize or clarify: actually, in other words,, in fact, as a matter of fact, of course… 10) to refer to something previously mentioned: the former, the latter, such, where, which, whom…

6 Ex. 17 Try to find some relevant information about trade secrets protection on the Net and write a short passage of 120 words or so on the topic Trade Secrets Protection according to the following outline in English. You can use the patterns provided. Outline: 1. What is a trade secret? 2. Advantage of trade secret protection 3. Disadvantage of trade secret protection Reference

7 Trade Secrets Protection A Trade secret is defined as any formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information that is used in one's business that gives it an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. Trade secret protection has advantages in some circumstance over other types of protection, including patents. Patents may last for a maximum of approximately 20 years. Trade secret protection may last as long as the information remains secret. For example, Kentucky Fried Chicken's blend of 11 herbs and spices has well kept trade secret for about 40 years and Coca- Cola's soda formula has been a valuable trade secret during 100 years since it original formulation. Trade secret protection also typically cost less to maintain. There are no government fees associated with trade secret. In addition, there are no attorney fees for drafting and prosecuting a trade secret,

8 unlike for a patent application. Further, a trade secret does not have to meet the high patentability standards of utility, novelty and nonobviousness. As a result, the subject matter protectable as a trade secret is extremely broad from chemical formula to service plans. One of the major drawback of using trade secrets protection is that care must be constantly exercised to ensure the confidentiality of the secret. Even one inadvertent disclosure of the information may result in loss of trade secret protection. Anything that can be readily discovered by "reverse engineering must be used if the invention is to be protected. Trade secret information also is frequently exploited by former employees due to malice toward the former employer or the profitability of corporate espionage, or both.

9 Writing a letter of complaint is a serious matter, which should sound much more formal than a personal letter, because it handles something that might hurt the good relations. Therefore, your letter should sound firm in giving a justified complaint while at the same time restrained and polite in using language. Letter of Complaint Sample Exercises

10 Frank Hamilton 29 Portman Street Liverpool D5 7WL April 18, 2002 Philip Flood Production Manager Bellfast Electronics Company 12 Landsdales Street Liverpool 3W SX1 Dear Mr. Philip Flood, We are pleased to be offered a wide selection of e-household utensils from your company. After your salesman dwelt on the usage of the burglar alarm, we chose one in good faith because we were robbed last year.

11 However, the burglar alarm has often activates when anyone shouts out nearby. So my grandchildren use it as their toy. Within two weeks, our neighbors visited five times and the policemen three times. Yesterday when I turned on the TV, it actually skirled again. In view of the above-mentioned facts, we request the following: Arrange a technician for repairs at once; Change a new one if beyond repair; Change another type if due to faulty manufacture. Kindly let us know your decision as soon as possible. Your prompt attention to this matter will be much appreciated. Yours sincerely Frank Hamilton

12 Ex. 18Write a letter about one fake commodity you bought there. Reference

13 ZhangYin 9 Green Street Chongqing May 20, 2002 Li Ming Sale Manager AAA Software Company 8 Main Street Chongqing Dear Mr. Li, On 12 May, I bought a MP3 Branded as Moon Box, Model P, Product No. oq3001528, made by Huafeng Information Technology Development Co. Ltd. at your shop. Unfortunately, when I came back home I found the product number printed on the box does match with the number printed

14 on the back of the player. The number on the box is oq3001528, but the number on the player is od3001528. I could not get registered with the number on the Net. And the player can only play in Pop, Normal and Rock modes. It cannot play in Jazz and Classic modes as it claims. Therefore Im sure the player I bought is a fake. To resolve the problem, I would appreciate if I could return the player and get my money back. Enclosed with the mail are copies of my records including receipts, guarantees, warranties, canceled checks. I look forward to your reply and a resolution to my problem, and will wait until 14 June before seeking help from the Local Consumer Protection Association. Please contact me at the above address or by phone at my office (023) 69367014. Sincerely, Zhang Yin

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