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**I-N-D-E-P-E-N-D-E-N-T variables, dependent variables, and constants**

Catalyst What question is this data table answering? What is one conclusion we can make from looking at this data table? Write a hypothesis to answer this question: Why is hydro (water) power used so often? Weekly Goal Write in complete sentences! Don’t talk during the Catalyst!

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**Today’s Agenda Catalyst Quiz grades Variables Notes and Practice Time**

I-N-D-E-P-E-N-D-E-N-T! DEPENDENT CONSTANTS Exit Question HOMEWORK TONIGHT! UNIT TEST ON FRIDAY!

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Quiz Class Averages 2CHEM 78 3BIO 4BIO

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**By the end of today, SWBAT…**

Objectives By the end of today, SWBAT… Identify independent and dependent variables, and constants in a scientific experiment

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Experimentation Key Point #1: A proper experiment always has an independent variable and dependent variable. The purpose of an experiment is to test how changing ONE THING affects something else. Bring em in. We discussed making observations, questions (kinda), making hypotheses, lets discuss how we test our guesses to questions.

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**Green text = I’m teaching you a definition.**

Write it. Variables Independent Variable: what causes the change we are measuring (acts independently) Dependent variable: what gets changed (depends on other things) Remember Variables are always CATEGORIES of things: time, amount, frequency, size, type Variables are NEVER specific things!!! Ask your students, what was the thing I changed? What did I measure?

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Teacher Models Scientists have discovered something shocking: if you eat a lot of candy, then you will gain fat. What is the independent variable? Eat a lot of candy Type of candy you eat Amount of candy you eat How much weight you gain

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Teacher Models Happy students learn more in school. So, Ms. S believes that starting school later would increase test scores. What is the dependent variable? Starting school later Happy students Time that school starts Test scores

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NEW PROCEDURE! WHITEBOARDS!

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**Whiteboard Practice Goal: 90 s**

When Ms. S says “GO!” Send one member of your group to get whiteboards and markers for everyone (back shelf) Send up another member of your group to get erasers – one for every two people (lab table)

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**Set Up Your Whiteboard #1 a. b. c. d. #2 a. b. c. d. #3 a. b. c. d. #4**

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Whiteboards 1 Ms. S believes that the more you study, the better grades you’ll earn. What is the independent variable? Studying more Amount of time you study Grade earned Type of test

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Whiteboards 2 Tyranea is always cold in class. She hypothesizes that if she wears many layers of clothing to school, then she will be warmer. What is the dependent variable? Number of layers Tyranea wears How cold Tyranea is Temperature of the room Tyranea will be warmer

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Whiteboards 3 Ms. Sanacore’s students want to test how easily bought off she is. Students who give her an apple get a “C.” Students who give her peanut M+M’s get an “A.” What is the independent variable? Type of food Apples and M+Ms “A” on the report card Report card

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Whiteboards 4 Jenika hates running, but loves listening to music. She believes that if she listens to music while running, then she will run more often. What is the dependent variable? She will run more often Listens to music while running Frequency that Jenika runs What Jenika listens to

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**If you’re having trouble…**

WRONG RIGHT 4 minutes 26 mg of baking soda Lifting weights every day Medium t-shirts Bullfrog 16 candles Never gets sick Time to get dressed Amount of baking soda Frequency of lifting weights Size of t-shirts Type of frog Number of candles Degree of health Variables will (almost) always have one of these key words

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Review Ms. S believes that the more you study, the better grades you’ll earn. What is the independent variable? Studying more Amount of time you study Grade earned Type of test Walk students back through the previous four questions to review answers.

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Review Tyranea is always cold in class. She hypothesizes that if she wears many layers of clothing to school, then she will be warmer. What is the dependent variable? Number of layers Tyranea wears How cold Tyranea is Temperature of the room Tyranea will be warmer

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Review Ms. Sanacore’s students want to test how easily bought off she is. Students who give her an apple get a “C.” Students who give her peanut M+Ms get an “A.” What is the independent variable? Type of food Apples and M+Ms “A” on the report card Report card

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Review Jenika hates running, but loves listening to music. She believes that if she listens to music while running, then she will run more often. What is the dependent variable? She will run more often Listens to music while running Frequency that Jenika runs What Jenika listens to

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**Guided Practice Worksheet**

8 minutes to complete independently (on your own, silently) 3 minutes to compare answers WORK HARD. It will help you with homework tonight.

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Constants Key Point #2: Everything but the independent and dependent variable must be kept constant. Constant: variable we keep the same If many different things change at once, we don’t know what causes the change!

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Example Let’s say we want to design an experiment to determine what causes GSP to win fights. Ask students to identify IV, DV Georges st. pierre

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**Number of fights that GSP wins**

Cause and Effect! Number of fights that GSP wins On this slide, we are making a cause-effect diagram. Write out everything that could possibly affect whether GSP wins. Choose ONE to be the IV---everything else must be held constant! Or else you do not know what is causing the change. Note that “frequency that GSP wins” is a good DV because it is a category.

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Answer in notes Jay-Z hypothesizes that if he stops cussing, then he will sell fewer CDs because students like cussing. What is the IV? What is the DV? What are the constants? Remember, variables are CATEGORIES. Sometimes you will have to figure out variables after reading someone’s hypothesis.

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**If Jay-Z stops cussing, then he will sell fewer CDs because students like cussing.**

IV Frequency that Jay-Z cusses How often Jay-Z cusses Amount of curse words in Jay-Z songs DV Number of CDs Jay-Z sells How many CDs Jay-Z sells Constant Amount of money CDs cost Number of tracks on each CD How good each CD is Sometimes you will have to figure out variables after reading someone’s hypothesis.

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CLEAR YOUR WHITEBOARD!

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Set Up Your Whiteboard IV = DV = Constant(s) =

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Practice You want to know when in the year there are the most love bugs. Every night, you record how many love bugs you find outside. Time of year (season/month) C – Location IV = DV = Constant = Amount of love bugs 29

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Practice Jenika needs to run a 6 minute mile to pass PE. She believes that if she runs every day, then she will be able to run faster. C – Track, Shoes, Clothes, Music IV = DV = Constant = Frequency that Jenika runs Mile time 30

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Practice Students of different genders were given the same puzzle to assemble. The puzzle assembly time was measured. C – Puzzle used IV = DV = Constant = Type of gender Time to assemble puzzle 31

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**If there are more students, then there will be more school buses.**

C – Area that students come from, Type of school bus IV = DV = Constant = Amount of students Number of school buses 32

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**If the cost of beignets increases, then fewer will be sold.**

What depends on what? IV = DV = Constant = Amount each beignet costs Number of beignets sold C – Beignet mix, amount of sugar, amount sold in one order If the cost of beignets increases, then fewer will be sold. 33

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**If the Saints sign more free agents, then they will win more games.**

IV = Number of free agents DV = Number of games won Constant = C – all other team members 34

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Conclusion A proper experiment always has an independent variable and dependent variable. Independent Variable: what causes the change we are measuring Dependent variable: what gets changed Constant: variable we keep the same Ask your students, what was the thing I changed? What did I measure?

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**Write in complete sentences! Don’t talk during the Exit Question!**

Let’s say you want to figure out if drinking milk actually makes you taller. So you drink a glass of milk every day, and record your height every day. What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable? What are at least two constants? Write in complete sentences! Don’t talk during the Exit Question!

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General Science – Thurs, 09.04.2008 CATALYST Take out your Variables worksheet from yesterday – take 5 minutes to finish any problems you didn’t finish!

General Science – Thurs, 09.04.2008 CATALYST Take out your Variables worksheet from yesterday – take 5 minutes to finish any problems you didn’t finish!

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