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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNING."— Presentation transcript:


2 Learning can be defined as the process leading to relatively permanent behavioral change or potential behavioral change. In other words, as we learn, we alter the way we perceive our environment FOUR TYPES OF LEARNING 1 2 3 4

3 Conditioning- is making an association between two events by repeatedly having them occur close together in time. Conditioning occurs everyday EX. If we eat something and become nauseous, smelling that food later may make us queasy. It can be reversed. EX. Students are conditioned by the school bell: their hearts race; they jump out of their seats We can condition both mental and physical behavior Conditioning plays a role in hunger. If the school day were shortened to 20 minute periods, you would still eat during the same lunch period (although a different time). You have been conditioned by the periods.

4 Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov’s method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus. Can a bell make you salivate? Classical Conditioning can make it happen. Pavlov was actually studying digestion in dogs when he stumbled across this phenomenon Classical conditioning is called so because it was the first experiment with learning When we touch a hot stove, our reflex pulls our hand back. It does this instinctually, no learning involved. It is merely a survival instinct. But why now do some people, after getting burned, pull their hands back even when the stove is not turned on? Classical conditioning works with Involuntary responses (we have no control over the behavior) When do you leave the classroom? When the bell rings, right? You have been classically conditioned.

5 Stimulus is anything that will cause some kind of reaction. (meat)
Response - is the reaction to the stimulus. (salivating)

6 There are no special conditions needed for the meat to cause salivation, it is a natural and automatic response. Therefore the meat is an unconditioned stimulus and the salivation is an unconditioned response Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)- a stimulus that automatically elicits a response. (meat) Unconditioned response (UCR)- an automatic response to a particular natural stimulus. (saliva) Fear would be an unconditioned response. We don’t have to learn to be afraid.

7 When the dog begins to associate the sight of the experimenter or the sound of a bell with food, then the experimenter or bell has become a conditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS)- is a previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (unconditioned) stimulus (bell) Does your cat come running when it hears the can opener. The can opener has become a conditioned stimulus.

8 When the dog begins to salivate at the sight of the experimenter or the sound of the bell, then the salivating has become a conditioned response Conditioned response (CR) -is a response to a stimulus that has been brought about by learning





13 Stimulus generalization occurs when a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other stimuli that resemble the original (responding to any bell sound, no matter what pitch) If stimulus generalization had occurred with someone who had learned to be afraid of the ocean, what other things could cause a fear response in that person? (a lake, river, bathtub, pool)

14 Discrimination is the ability to respond differently to distinct stimuli. (only responding to one type of bell)

15 Little Albert experiment conducted by John Watson proved that conditioning of emotions to neutral objects is possible Watson showed that fear can be learned through classical conditioning (ex. Sound of a gun shot can cause fear in war vets) Albert was shown a white rat and several other animals. At first Albert was not afraid. Then, the experimenter began making a loud noise behind Albert every time he saw the white rat. Eventually Albert feared the rat without the loud noise. Soon Albert feared all the animals = stimulus generalization.

16 Extinction the gradual loss of an association over time
Extinction the gradual loss of an association over time. The conditioned response (CR) will gradually die out Ex. Pavlov’s dogs-food was taken away and the dogs eventually stopped salivating at the sight of experimenter or sound of the bell If you wanted to extinguish the fear of a dog who has been beaten by hand, you might raise your hand every time you pet the dog so that it no longer fears a raised hand.

17 Classical Conditioning
Water Gun Experiment ` Classical Conditioning

18 Label a blank sheet of paper with the following and identify each as you watch the water gun experiment UCS UCR CS CR STIMULUS GENERALIZATION? EXTINCTION?

19 water squirted at volunteer
UCS water squirted at volunteer UCR flinch, squint, facial expression CS sound of the word can CR flinch, squint, facial expression when word “can” is read without water squirt If words that sound like can cause CR (flinch, squint, facial expression) SG? Conditioning can occur after one pairing of the neutral and unconditioned stimulus, or it may take several tries. EXTINCTION? When the CR’s disappear or become less pronounced when the word “can” is uttered several times without squirt of water

Before we have heard of a product, it is Neutral. If we associate the product (N) with pleasant images (UCS), which produce pleasant feelings (UCR), the product (CS) will later create pleasant feelings (CR).


22 Neutral: beverage product
Let’s say you have a beverage commercial that includes barely clothed models drinking the product. Conditioning is taking place. Neutral: beverage product UCS: barely clothed models UCR: pleasant feelings CS: the product Have students meet in groups quickly and generate a list of 5 – 10 things that they have learned through classical conditioning in their lives. If time permits, have them identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR. CR: pleasant feelings


24 Identify the UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus), UCR (Unconditioned Response), CS (Conditioned Stimulus), CR (Conditioned Response) for each of the following:

25 You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu
You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it. UCS: Flu Sickness UCR: Nausea New food CS: CR: Nausea to new food

26 An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate. UCS: Drug UCR: Accelerated Heart Rate Small room CS: CR: Accelerated heart rate to small room

27 John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat. UCS: Loud noise UCR: startle White rat CS: CR: Startle response to white rat

28 OPERANT CONDITIONING Most learning occurs as a result of some voluntary action taken by the learner. This is called operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is conditioning (learning) that results from one’s actions and the consequences that they cause Imagine the last time you made a mistake; you most likely remember that mistake and do things differently when the situation comes up again. In that sense, you’ve learned to act differently based on the natural consequences of your previous actions Operant Conditioning involves learned voluntary responses (ones we control)

29 B.F. Skinner is best known for his work with the operant conditioning theory.
Believed that how we turn out is a direct result of what we learn from all of the operations (operant) that we make over the years

30 Two types of Reinforcement
Reinforcement is something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response Two types of Reinforcement Primary reinforcement is something that is necessary for survival. Ex: food or water The possibility of getting one of these when you perform an action is the strongest incentive to learn When a contractor reinforces something, he is strengthening it.

31 Secondary reinforcement is anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer. Ex: money brings us food by buying it These reinforcements can also be either positive or negative Positive reinforcement is when there is a tendency to repeat a response because it was followed by the addition of something pleasant. Something that is wanted by the individual is given after the action

32 Reinforcement always strengthens a response, rather than weakening it.
Negative reinforcement is when something that is unpleasant is stopped or taken away when something is done Reinforcement always strengthens a response, rather than weakening it. In both cases the consequences of an action are something that the organism wants. In one, something pleasant is added and in the other something unpleasant is removed Reinforcement always makes a response stronger Nagging is a form of Negative reinforcement. Let’s say you don’t take the garbage out. Your parents nag you about it all the time. Eventually you take that garbage out so the nagging stops.

33 Continuous reinforcement occurs when after each time a behavior occurs it is reinforced. The problem with this is that if the creature gets used to being rewarded and then is not, it will quit doing the behavior To avoid the problem with continuous reinforcement, there can be different schedules of reinforcement (different methods of reinforcing) used. Partial reinforcement schedule is when a reward is not given each time an act is performed. There are 4 types of partial reinforcement schedules.

34 Variable ratios schedule is when reinforcement occurs after a desired behavior occurs, but a different number of the desired acts are required each time. Ex. slot machines.

35 Fixed ratio schedule is when the reinforcement occurs after the desired act is performed a specific number of times. Ex. Get allowance every two times you clean your room. Ratios are dealing with a certain # of behaviors There can be problems with this. You may do a poor job cleaning your room the first time, and rush to clean it the second time because you know your reinforcement only comes after two times.

36 Variable interval schedule is when the reinforcement occurs after varying amounts of time if a desired act occurs. Ex. fishing

37 Fixed interval schedule is when the reinforcement is received after a fixed amount of time has passed and the desired act occurs. Ex. You get allowance every other Friday. Intervals are dealing with time.


39 There also is a difference between punishment and negative reinforcement
Punishment is the process of trying to weaken a response by following it with unpleasant consequences, not to try and strengthen it. There are two basic ways to go with punishment

40 Something desired can be taken away. Ex
Something desired can be taken away. Ex. money paid for a traffic ticket . (THIS IS ALSO CALLED RESPONSE COST) Something unwanted can be added. Ex. retaking drivers test for violations Discriminations, extinction and generalization will occur in operant conditioning just as they occurred in classical conditioning. Ask: What is the best form of Punishment for teens? Or would reinforcement be more effective? You break curfew, what works better, grounding or removing specific privileges.


42 Rules in analyzing examples
Rules in analyzing examples. The following questions can help in determining whether operant conditioning has occurred . What behavior in the example was increased or decreased? b. Was the behavior increased (if yes, the process has to be either positive or negative reinforcement), or decreased (if the behavior was decreased the process is either response cost or punishment). c. What was the consequence / stimulus that followed the behavior in the example? d. Was the consequence / stimulus added or removed? If added, the process was either positive reinforcement or punishment. If it was subtracted, the process was either negative reinforcement or response cost.

43 Billy likes to campout in the backyard
Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped-out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks. What behavior was changed? CAMPING OUT Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? WEAKENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)

44 What was the consequence?
HAVING WATER THROWN ON HIM Was the consequence added or subtracted? ADDED Since a consequence was added and the behavior was weakened, the process was punishment.

45 What behavior was changed?
Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. She raised her hand 3 time during the first class, 3 times in the second and 4 times during the last class. What behavior was changed? HANDRAISING Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? STRENGTHENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE RESPONSE COST & PUNISHMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)

46 What was the consequence?
BEING CALLED ON Was the consequence added or subtracted? ADDED Since the consequence was added and the behavior was strengthened, the process is positive reinforcement.

47 What behavior was changed?
Gregory is being reinforced using a token economy. When he follows a direction / command he earns a point. At the end of each day, he can "buy" freetime, t.v. privileges, etc. with his points. When he misbehaves or doesn't follow a command, he loses points. Andrew used to call his mom names. Since he has been on the point system, his name calling has been reduced to almost zero. What behavior was changed? NAME CALLING Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? WEAKENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)

48 What was the consequence?
LOSING POINTS Was the consequence added or subtracted? SUBTRACTED Since the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was weakened, the process is response cost.

49 What behavior was changed?
John does not go to the dentist every 6-months for a checkup. Instead, he waited until a tooth really hurts, then goes to the dentist. After two emergency trips to the dentist, John now goes every 6-months What behavior was changed? GOING TO THE DENTIST Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? STRENGTHENED (YOU CAN ELIMINATE RESPONSE COST & PUNISHMENT AS POSSIBILITIES)

50 What was the consequence?
TOOTH NO LONGER HURTING Was the consequence added or subtracted? SUBTRACTED Since the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was strengthened, the process is negative reinforcement.

51 Two techniques can be used to learn complex responses, they will only be used in operant conditioning Shaping is the process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer versions of it. Ex. of dog jumping through hoop. First approach hoop, rewarded, jump hoop, rewarded etc. Demonstration: Pick a volunteer. Have that person leave the room for a moment. Have the rest of the class choose a simple behavior it wants to shape. Have the student return. Every time the student gets close to the desired behavior, have the students clap. (VERY SIMILAR TO HOT AND COLD)

52 Chaining is the reinforcing the connection between the different parts of a sequence. Ex. learning how to play basketball you learn how to dribble, then pass and catch etc. Ex. To divide numbers you must learn to multiply, and subtract etc. Each shaped behavior is reinforced Separate behaviors are joined together Each shaped behavior is connected to another Chaining is taking a bunch of shaped behaviors and putting them together.

53 Operant Conditioning: Stimulus – Response - Reinforcement
IN REVIEW In classical conditioning the critical part of the conditioning occurs before the response; the stimulus actually causes the response. In operant conditioning, the critical part of conditioning occurs after the response; the reinforcement determines whether the response will occur again. Operant = Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement Operant Conditioning: Stimulus – Response - Reinforcement

54 In classical conditioning learning takes place automatically, without any voluntary action on the part of the subject. In operant conditioning the subject learns from the consequences of his or her voluntary actions. CLASSICAL = INVOLUNTARY OPERANT = VOLUNTARY Some behaviors are learned through classical conditioning while others are learned through operant conditioning and some behaviors are learned through a combinations of both.

55 Present day psychology has moved away from classical and operant conditioning. While both play a role in learning, they fall short of explaining complex learning processes. Current belief is that Operant and Classical conditioning treat humans too much like robots.

56 Social Learning is all learning that occurs in a social situation.
This was theorized by Albert Bandura, who believed that the most important aspect of learning was the complex “inner person” who can analyze events and make decisions before a response is given. Prior to beginning these notes, leave the class for a moment. Have one student prepared to grab the basketball from behind the desk and start shooting at the basket. Return after a few moments and ask the class what happened. How many people began to shoot also? This is observational learning. This occurs between the stimulus and the response STIMULUS ANALYZE RESPOND

57 Observational learning is the learning patterns of behavior by watching others and imitating the behavior of others. From the parent a child learns speech matters, habits and how to react to other people. The child will observe and then pattern behavior after that of the important people in their life. Much of our learning is done through observation Observational learning is a part of social learning

58 ‘Social learning’ refers to all learning in a social situation, ‘observational learning’ is one of the processes used for social learning where we watch events, persons, and situations for cues on how to behave. Bobo Doll Experiment: Children watched as an adult violently treated a doll (pummeled with hammer, punched in face, kicked, threw) Children were put in a room and not allowed to play with toys, then they were moved to the room with the doll 88% of the children attacked the doll in a similar fashion as the adults. 8 months later, 40% of the children still attacked the doll. To show how essential observational learning is, have a student recite specific instructions to you on how to tie a shoe. The student cannot show you, only tell you.

Cognitive approach is a way of learning that is based on abstract mental processes and previous knowledge With this approach we are able to learn very abstract and subtle things that could not have been learned through conditioning or social learning. Ex. broken mirror, walking under ladder. This is the most advanced type of learning It is more complex than stimulus and response. Think about Little Albert, what would have been different if he were older and able to tell that Watson was standing behind him banging on a bar. Would he have still associated fear of the noise with the white rat? Cognition is studied by focusing on how complex knowledge is obtained, processed, and organized

60 E.C. Tolman is a psychologist who felt that the stimulus-response view of learning was far to simplified. Animals use what is called a cognitive map to aid in learning. Cognitive Map is a mental image of where one is located in space. Animals and people are able to view the differences in things mentally and to remember the changes. Cognitive Map Experiment: Give students all a blank sheet of paper Have students draw their house in the middle of the paper Have students think of two places that are relatively the same distance from their house. One has to be a place they enjoy going and one has to be a place they do not enjoy going. Have students draw a map of the streets from their house to each place Have students evaluate their drawing, how many made the distance to the unpleasant place greater than the distance to the pleasant place. If they did, they made a symbolic map that puts them closer to the pleasant place. Ex. Rats in a maze form a cognitive map. If they find the exit, they can be put back in that map and recall the cognitive map to escape

61 Strategies are methods for solving problems


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