Presentation on theme: "Act IV Scene I In court in Venice, Shylock demands that the terms of his bond be fufilled. Portia enters as a doctor of laws (lawyer), with a letter of."— Presentation transcript:
1 Act IV Scene IIn court in Venice, Shylock demands that the terms of his bond be fufilled. Portia enters as a doctor of laws (lawyer), with a letter of introduction from Dr. Bellario. We learn the fate of Antonio and Shylock, as well as get a surprise with the ring plot!
2 The Duke warns AntonioThe Duke of Venice warns Antonio, the defendant, that the plaintiff (Shylock) is "a stony adversary incapable of pity [and] void of mercy."Antonio explains that he is ready to suffer and that he will do so quietly. He has accepted that "no lawful means“ will be able to save him now.
3 Should Shylock be more lenient? The duke says that everyone thinks that he should relent at the last moment and spare Antonio, taking "pity on his losses.“Shylock is adamant; he prefers the penalty of a pound of flesh to repayment of three thousand ducats. Why? Shylock says, "it is my humor."In other words, Shylock wants the pound of flesh for no rational reason. He wants it only because of "a lodged hate and a certain loathing" for Antonio.
4 Bassanio tries to help.Bassanio tries to reason with Shylock, but it is clearly a waste of time. He offers Shylock 6,000 ducats, but it’s no use because it will not change Shylock’s mind.
5 The Duke’s question for Shylock "How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none?"What does the Duke mean by this?Shylock cites the mistreatment of many Venetian slaves by the Venetians themselves, justified by the fact that they bought the slaves and can treat them as they please.In the same way, the pound of flesh which he has "dearly bought" belongs to him, and he can do with it as he pleases.Shylock demands an immediate judgment confirming his right to justice.
6 The Duke is waiting……for Dr. Bellario to come, because he cannot render such a big decision on his own. So Shylock has to wait…
7 Bassanio tries to cheer Antonio up Bassanio wants to give up his own life for Antonio’sAntonio, however, is pessimistic and tells Bassanio to “live still, and write my own epitaph.”
8 And here comes Nerissa… She is dressed like a lawyers clerk and delivers a letter from Bellario to the Duke.When the letter is read aloud, it explains that Balthazar will come in his place since he is ill.
9 And who is Balthazar?!That’s right. It’s Portia!
10 So here we go…Portia asks Antonio if his bond is a valid one, and he admits that it is. She then tells him that Shylock must be merciful.Shylock is shocked: Why should he be merciful?Portia answers with her famous mercy speech which illustrates and supports why the idea of having mercy upon someone is a favorable one.
11 The infamous Mercy Speech… p. 155 No one shows mercy because he has to. It just happens, the way gentle rain drops on the ground. Mercy is a double blessing. It blesses the one who gives it and the one who receives it. It’s strongest in the strongest people. It looks better in a king than his own crown looks on him. The king’s scepter represents his earthly power, the symbol of majesty, the focus of royal authority. But mercy is higher than the scepter. It’s enthroned in the hearts of kings, a quality of God himself. Kingly power seems most like God’s power when the king mixes mercy with justice. So although justice is your plea, Jew, consider this. Justice won’t save our souls. We pray for mercy, and this same prayer teaches us to show mercy to others as well. I’ve told you this to make you give up this case. If you pursue it, this strict court of Venice will need to carry out the sentence against the merchant there.
12 Shylock doesn’t care…He craves the law and the penalty and forfeit of the bond.He could care less that Bassanio has offered him 3 times the sum: HE WANTS THE PENALTY!Since Venetian law is binding, Shylock is entitled to what he wants.
13 The time has come…Shylock produces a scale to weigh the flesh, and Antonio says goodbye to Bassanio.What does Antonio tell Bassanio?Antonio hopes that death will come quickly.Both Bassanio and Gratiano tell Antonio they would sacrifice EVERYTHING they have (including their wives) in order to help him.How did Nerissa and Portia feel about this?
14 Patient is a virtue…that Shylock does not have. Before Shylock can begin, Portia stops him and tells him he cannot take a single drop of blood. Why? He is entitled to a single pound of flesh AND NO MORE!If a single drop of blood is shed, his land and goods will be confiscated by the state of Venice.
15 Shylock was played…Now Shylock tries to take the money Bassanio offered him.Portia tells him he will have “nothing but the penalty”—”just a pound of flesh.”Then, Shylock tries to take the money from the bond, but Portia points out that the court was witness to his rejection of that as well.
16 Shylock gets more than he bargained for. Portia reminds Shylock that one of the laws of Venice forbids an alien from directly or indirectly attempting "to seek the life of any citizen" of Venice.She tells Shylock that she has seen sufficient proof that Shylock seeks Antonio's life both directly and indirectly.She commands him to "beg mercy of the Duke.“The duke speaks and pardons Shylock, sparing his life and adding that the penalty of the state's taking half of Shylock's goods will be reduced if Shylock evidences some "humbleness." Shylock is adamant at such a proposal: "Nay, take my life and all," he declares.Antonio gets half of his estate, unless he shows some mercy.
17 And what does Antonio do? Antonio says that he will take only half of Shylock's goods which are due to him (Shylock can have the other half) in trust in order to give them to Lorenzo (Shylock's son-in-law) upon Shylock's death.This will occur under 3 conditions:Shylock must become a ChristianHe must deed everything to Jessica and Lorenzo.He must pay a fineQuietly, Shylock agrees to the settlement: "I am content," he says, and asks permission to leave the court.
18 Portia saves the day!!!!Bassanio offers Portia 3000 ducats as a legal fee, but she declines.Antonio and Bassanio urge her to take something, so she finally concedes and says will take Bassanio’s ring and gloves.Bassanio says he will give up ANYTHING but the ring, as it was a gift from his wife and he promised her he would never part with it!
19 NOT THE RING!!! Portia wants nothing else, but the ring. She walks away, and Antonio pleads with him, saying that she deserves the ring.Finally, he sends Gratiano after the lawyer to give the ring.The scene ends with Bassanio talking to Antonio about how they will leave for Belmont early in the morning.