Presentation on theme: "Migration and Temporary Movement (Mode 4): Towards a Trade and Development approach Economic Affairs Division Commonwealth Secretariat."— Presentation transcript:
Migration and Temporary Movement (Mode 4): Towards a Trade and Development approach Economic Affairs Division Commonwealth Secretariat
Problem Statement What is the most strategic policy to manage the current trend in the migration of professionals from developing countries to developed countries?
Current Situation Migration is one of the most significant domestic, development and foreign policy issues in the world today Migration can bring benefits both to home and host countries A large outflow of persons can have a negative impact on the growth and development of a country and especially in sectors that experience the greatest loss PAHO and the Caribbean institutions have commenced a program of managed migration into which this proposal will fit.
Benefits to developing countries Remittances Diaspora contribution of skills, knowledge, entrepreneurship and ideas Valuable advocacy and fund-raising work for emergency situations A safety valve that allows any surplus of people in the labour force to leave
Commonwealth approaches The Commonwealth Code of Practice for International Recruitment of Health Workers The Draft Protocol for the recruitment of Commonwealth Teachers The Commonwealth Business Council Africa Recruit
PROJECT PROPOSAL WHAT IS THE COMMONWEALTHS LATEST APPROACH TO MIGRATION THE USE OF MODE IV
MODE 4 and the GATS The supply of a service by a service supplier of one Member, through presence of natural persons of a Member in the territory of any other Member. (mainly inter-corporate transferees and experts) Members remain free to operate measures regarding citizenship, residence or access to the employment market on a permanent basis.
EAD Research on Mode IV Winters study found that very substantial economic benefits come from liberalisation of mode IV If the OECD countries created a quota of 3% of labour force and allocated this to developing countries the benefits would be 150% larger than the benefits of all other trade liberalisation combined. Greatest economic benefits come from liberalisation of semi-skilled and unskilled categories.
WTO and Mode IV Many developing countries see mode IV as being fundamentally in their interests. In the Caribbean there is no desire to touch mode IV at WTO because many Caribbean countries have bilateral arrangements with the US and Canada. Developed countries also seem to prefer a bilateral approach at this time. Despite significant interest from India and S Asia there is no substantive progress in Geneva.
OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT Developing trade in services in the Caribbean and diversify economic activity away from trade preference dependence. Utilize and expand bilateral arrangements based on Mode IV Increase supply/export of professionals without the affected sectors suffering. Establish a network that would allow the skilled professionals to contribute whilst overseas. Establish a system of re-integration into their home country. ( PAHO already developing projects in this area)
Design of project Component 1 – Feasibility of programme and Consensus building Study by Consultant Meeting of experts, donors, and stakeholders Component 2 – Feasibility on Development Assistance and visa requirements Advocacy by Caribbean leaders Establishing formal partnerships in training Obtaining development assistance/funding for project Establishment of special visa arrangement Component 3 – Establishment of Re-integration programme
Cost benefit analysis of Project Proposal Benefits –Decreased financial burden on government –Increased remittances –Training of professionals to international standards –Transfer of technical expertise i.e. brain circulation rather than brain drain –Spin-offs to Caribbean training institutions –Potential for model for trade diversification Risks –Unwillingness of developed countries to agree to a new type of visa –Unwillingness of educational institutions –Professionals opting for another contract or changing immigration status
Role of Commonwealth Secretariat To mitigate risks – strong advocacy, consensus building and technical assistance Conducting feasibility studies Facilitating interaction between stakeholders, universities, donors, regulators and the private sector. Commonwealth will facilitate process as consensus emerges.
COMMENTS INVITED ON Proposed objectives Design of project Resources that can be made available for the project