Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Personal Nutrition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 5: Personal Nutrition Prepared by: Andrew Owusu Ph.D
2 Chapter 5 ObjectivesList the basic nutrients necessary for a healthy body and describe their functions.Describe the key themes of the USDA MyPyramid Food Guidance System.List five specific nutrition guidelines of the MyPyramid System.
3 Chapter 5 ObjectivesExplain how to interpret the nutritional information provided on food labels.List the food safety hazards and describe prevention measures.List your nutrition pitfalls and define a strategy to avoid them.
4 Important Nutrition Terminology Essential NutrientsMacronutrientsMicronutrients
5 Important Nutrition Terminology DefinitionNutritionThe science devoted to the study of dietary needs for food and the effects of food on organisms.
6 Important Nutrition Terminology DefinitionEssential NutrientsNutrients that the body cannot manufacture for itself and must obtain from food.
7 Important Nutrition Terminology DefinitionMacronutrientsNutrients required by the human body in the greatest amounts, including water, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
8 Important Nutrition Terminology DefinitionMicronutrientsVitamins and minerals needed by the body in very small amounts.
9 Figure 5.1 Six Categories of Nutrients Fig. 5-1, p. 128
10 Figure 5.2 The Digestive System The organs of the digestive system break down food into nutrients that the body can use.Fig. 5-2, p. 129
11 Digestive Tract Organs That Contain the Food Organs That Aid Digestion MouthChews and mixes food with salivaSalivary Glands Produce a starch-digesting enzyme Produce a trace of fat-digesting enzyme (important to infants)EsophagusPasses food to stomachStomachAdds acid, enzymes, and fluid Churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid massLiverManufactures bile, a detergentlike substance that facilitates digestion of fatsGallbladderStores bile until neededBile DuctConducts bile to small intestinePancreasManufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients Releases bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid that enters small intestinePancreatic Duct Conducts pancreatic juice into small intestineSmall IntestineSecretes enzymes that digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein Cells lining intestine absorb nutrients into blood and lymph fluidsLarge Intestine (Colon) Reabsorbs water and minerals Passes waste (fiber, bacteria, any unabsorbed nutrients)and some water to rectumRectumStores waste prior to eliminationAnusHolds rectum closed Opens to allow eliminationFigure 5.1: The Digestive System.The organs of the digestive system break down food into nutrients that the body can use.Stepped ArtFig. 5-2, p. 129
12 Macronutrient Recommendations WaterMinimum of 64 ounces of water/dayProteins10-35% of total daily caloriesCarbohydrates45-65% of total daily caloriesFatsAdults: 20-35% of total daily caloriesChildren: 25-40% of total calories
13 How Many Calories Do I Need? The measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food.Basal Metabolic RateThe number of calories needed to sustain your body at rest.Factors Affecting Calorie NeedsGender, age, body-frame, weight, percentage body fat, basal metabolic rate and activity level.
14 Estimations of Daily Calorie Needs Individual CharacteristicsCalories Per DayMost women, some older adults, children ages two to six1,600Average adult2,000Most men, active women, teenage girls, older children2,200Active men, teenage boys2,800
15 Water Functions of Water Water in the Body Daily Water Losses Carries nutrients.Maintains temperature.Lubricates joints.Helps with digestion.Rids the body of wastes through urine.Contributes to the production of sweat.Water in the BodyBlood: 85% waterMuscles: 70% waterBrain: 75% waterDaily Water Losses~64-80 ounces of water a day through perspiration, urination, bowel movements, and normal exhalation.
16 ProteinsDescriptionCritical for growth, maintenance and repair, proteins form the basic framework for our muscles, bones, blood, hair, and fingernails.
17 Proteins Characteristics 4 calories per gram Made from a combination of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential.Complete proteins: animal proteins – meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products.Incomplete proteins: grains, dry beans, and nuts.
18 Proteins Dietary Recommendations 0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight for adults.
19 Carbohydrates Description Organic compounds that provide our brains and bodies with glucose, their basic fuel.
20 Carbohydrates Characteristics 4 calories per gram Simple (sugars) vs. complex (starches and fiber)Major food sources of carbohydrates are plants – including grains, vegetables, fruits, and beans – and milk.
21 Carbohydrates Dietary Recommendations At least 130 grams/day to support brain function.Limit added sugars to no more than 25% of total daily calories.At least 3 servings of whole grain/day.Men: 38 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 30 grams.Women: 25 grams of fiber/day; 50+ years: 21 grams.
23 FatsDescriptionCarry and aid in the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K.Protect organs from injury.Regulate body temperature.Play an important role in growth and development.
24 Fats Characteristics 9 calories per gram. Unsaturated fats: Monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids) which are liquid at room temperature and come from vegetable and fish oils.Saturated fats: Animal fats that tend to be solid at room temperature.Trans fats: created by a process called hydrogenation. Found in some margarine products, baked goods and fried foods. Linked to heart disease.
25 Fats Dietary Recommendations Choose soybean, canola, corn, olive, safflower, and sunflower oils.Look for reduced-fat, low-fat, fat-free, and trans fat-free versions of baked goods, snacks, and other processed foods.
26 VitaminsDescriptionHelp put proteins, fats, and carbohydrates to use.Essential to regulating growth, maintaining tissue, and releasing energy from food.Involved in the manufacture of blood cells, hormones, and other compounds.
27 Vitamins Fat-soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and K Stored in the body. CharacteristicsFat-soluble: Vitamins A, D, E and KStored in the body.Water-soluble: B vitamins (8 total) and vitamin CUsed up by the body or washed out in urine and sweat.Must be replaced daily.
29 AntioxidantsDescriptionSubstances that prevent the harmful effects caused by oxidation within the body.Antioxidants share a common enemy: renegade oxygen cells called free radicals released by normal metabolism, as well as by pollution, smoking, radiation, and stress.
30 Antioxidants Vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene (a form of vitamin A). CharacteristicsVitamins C, E, and beta-carotene (a form of vitamin A).Phytochemicals such as carotenoids and flavonoids.
31 AntioxidantsDietary RecommendationsConsume a diet high in antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables each and everyday.
32 Antioxidants are found in vegetables and fruit Antioxidants are found in vegetables and fruit. By eating an orange at breakfast and half a carrot for lunch, you will have all the antioxidants you need for the day.p. 136
33 Minerals Help build bones and teeth. Aid in muscle function. DescriptionHelp build bones and teeth.Aid in muscle function.Help our nervous system transmit messages.
34 Minerals Make up 4% of our body weight. 16 minerals CharacteristicsMake up 4% of our body weight.16 mineralsMajor: Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sulfur.Trace: Iron, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, iodine, copper, manganese, fluoride and chromium.
36 Calcium Builds strong bone tissue throughout life. DescriptionBuilds strong bone tissue throughout life.Plays a vital role in blood clotting, and muscle and nerve functioning.May help control high blood pressure, prevent colon cancer in adults, and promote weight loss.
37 CalciumCharacteristicsAdequate calcium intake during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood is crucial to prevent osteoporosis.
39 Osteoporosis Bone-weakening disease Strikes 1 in 4 women over age 60. Peak Bone Mass25-35 yearsThe higher an individuals peak bone mass, the longer it takes for age- and menopause-related bone losses to increase the risk of fracture.Age 40Bone loss equivalent to a rate of percent per year begins in both men and women.MenopauseThe rate of bone loss can increase at a rate of 3-5%.PreventionAdequate calcium intake and exercise.
41 Sodium Excess sodium is not a problem for most healthy individuals. CharacteristicsExcess sodium is not a problem for most healthy individuals.30% of the population is salt-sensitive and therefore too much sodium can contribute to high blood pressure.
42 SodiumDietary RecommendationsNational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: <2,400 mg/day (1 teaspoon of table salt)For Individual With High Blood Pressure: <1,500 mg/day
43 PhytochemicalsDescriptionChemicals such as indoles, coumarins, and capsaicin, which exist naturally in plants and have disease fighting properties.
44 PhytochemicalsBenefitsFlavonoids: may decrease atherosclerotic plaque and DNA damage related to cancer development.Associated with reduced risk of heart disease, certain cancers, age-related macular degeneration, adult-onset diabetes, stroke and other diseases.
45 Are You at Risk for a Nutritional Deficiency? GroupNutrients of ConcernTeenage GirlsIronCalciumWomen of child-bearing ageFolic AcidPersons over age 50Vitamin B12The elderly, persons with dark skin and individuals without adequate exposure to the sunVitamin D
46 Are You Getting Enough of These Nutrients? For AdultsVitamin AVitamin CVitamin ECalciumMagnesiumPotassiumFiberFor Children
47 The MyPyramid Food Guidance System Figure 5.4 The MyPyramid Food Guidance SystemFig. 5-4, p. 143
48 The MyPyramid Food Guidance System Figure 5.4 The MyPyramid Food Guidance SystemFig. 5-4, p. 143
49 Key Themes of MyPyamid Variety Proportionality Moderation Activity Personalization
50 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Consume a Variety of FoodsConsume a diet high in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk products.The greater the variety of colors and of foods you choose, the more likely you are to obtain the nutrients you need.Benefits:Reduced risk of chronic disease, and encourages a diet low in saturated fat, cholesterol, added sugars, trans fat, and sodium.
51 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Manage Your WeightMake it a point to expend as much energy as you take in.Limit portion sizes, substitute nutrient-rich foods for nutrient-poor foods, and limit added sugars, solid fats, and alcoholic beverages.Benefits:Reduced risk of those chronic diseases related to obesity.
52 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Get Physical EverydayHealth Benefits:30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day.Weight Gain Prevention:60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day.Weight Loss Maintenance:60-90 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day.Children and Teenagers:Benefits:Helps maintain a healthy weight and reduces the risk for several chronic diseases.
53 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Increase Foods from Certain Food GroupsConsume 5-13 servings or 2 ½ to 6 ½ cups of fruits and vegetables each day.Benefits: May reduce the risk of stroke, certain cancers, and type 2 diabetes, and encourages a healthy weight.Consume 3 or more servings of whole grains each day.Benefits: Reduces the risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and aid in maintenance of a healthy weight.Consume at least 3 servings of milk, yogurt, or cheese a day.Benefits: Reduced risk for high blood pressure, obesity, and osteoporosis.
54 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Choose Carbohydrates WiselyGet your carbohydrates by eating more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nonfat or low-fat milk and dairy products.Benefits: May reduce the risk of a variety of chronic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease while promoting digestive health.Reduce your intake of added sugars.Benefits: Maintenance of a healthy weight and reduced risk of dental caries.
55 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Be Finicky About FatsReduce your intake of saturated fat (<10% of total calories), trans fat (as low as possible), and cholesterol (<300 mg per day).Benefits: Can lower harmful LDL cholesterol and your risk of heart disease.Aim for two servings of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids each week.Benefits: Can boost heart health and reduce your risk of dying of heart disease.
56 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Limit SaltConsume <2,300 mg of sodium per day, and increase potassium intake to at least 4,700 mg.Benefits: May lower your blood pressure and reduce your risk for stroke, heart disease, and kidney disease.
57 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter If You Drink Alcoholic Beverages,Do So In ModerationFor most middle-aged and older adults, one to two drinks a day.Benefits: May lower the risk of dying, primarily because moderate alcohol consumption protects against heart diseaseDisadvantages: Compared with nondrinkers, women who consume one alcoholic beverage per day appear to have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.For younger people, alcohol provides little, if any, health benefits and increases the risk of traumatic injury and death.
58 Using the MyPyramid Food System to Eat Smarter Keep Food SafeThoroughly wash hands.Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing and storing.Cook foods to safe temperatures.Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly.
60 Figure 5.6 The Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Fig. 5-6, p. 153
61 Vegetarian Food Pyramid NEW YORK MEDICAL COLLEGE VEGETARIAN PYRAMIDThis version of the Food Guide Pyramid has been modified for use by vegetarians.Fig. 5-7, p. 155
62 Quick and Easy Estimates of Portion Sizes 1 c cookedvegetables isabout thesize of your fist.3 oz. ofmeat isabout thesize of adeck ofcards.1/4 c driedfruit isaboutthe sizeof agolf ball.4 smallcookiesare aboutthe size of4 pokerchips.Figure 5.8 Understanding Nutrition Labels Quick and easy estimates of portion sizes1 medium fruitis about the sizeof a baseball.1/2 c ice creamis about thesize of aracquet ball.1 1/2 oz.cheeseis about thesize of sixstackeddice.2 tbs.peanutbutter isabout thesize of amarshmallow.Fig. 5-8, p. 156
63 Understanding Nutrition Labels Food labels can be misleading.Two examples of labels claiming “lean” ground beef.Only the 7% fat beef is actually lean. “20% fat” ground beef is far from lean, actually providing 21 grams of fat and 70% of total calories from fat per serving.
64 Fight BAC! Four Key Culprits in Foodborne Illness Improper coolingImproper hand washingInadequate cookingFailure to avoid cross-contamination
65 Food SafetyAvoiding E. ColiFood PoisoningPesticidesFood Allergies
66 What Causes Food Poisoning? SalmonellaCampylobacter JejuniStaphylococcus AureusClostridium BotulinumListeriaE.coli (VTEC)
67 Making Healthy Food Choices Eat breakfast.Don’t eat too much of one thing.Eat more grains, fruits, and vegetables.Don’t ban any food.Make every calorie count.