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The Cell Cycle Mitosis.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell Cycle Mitosis."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell Cycle Mitosis

2 The Cell Cycle The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.

3 The Cell Cycle 6 Parts Interphase Prophase* Metaphase Anaphase
Telophase Cytokinesis *When mitosis begins.

4 Stage 1: Interphase During interphase the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into 2 cells. Cell grows - The cell grows to full size and produces structures it needs. Copies DNA -Cell makes a full copy of the DNA. This process is known as replication. DNA is found in the chromatin.

5 Stage 1: Interphase Preparing for Division - After replication has occurred, the cell copies its centrioles. Centrioles - Cylindrical structures that produce microtubules used in mitosis.

6 Stage 2: Mitosis Mitosis - The stage during which the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei. During mitosis, one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells. Daughter cells - The cells that are produced following cell division.

7 Stage 2: Mitosis Part 1 Prophase - Chromatin condenses in the nucleus to form chromosomes. Chromosomes are made of chromatin. The two chromatids that make up a chromosome is held together in the center by a centromere. (make a diagram.) The centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus. The nuclear envelope breaks down.

8 Stage 2: Mitosis Part2 Metaphase -
Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at its centromere. The spindle fibers are connected to the centrioles.

9 Stage 2: Mitosis Part 3 Anaphase -
The centromeres split, and the chromatids separate. Each chromatid becomes a new chromosome. New chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell. Cell begins to stretch out as the opposite ends are pushed apart.

10 Stage 2: Mitosis Part 4 Telophase -
Chromosomes lose their rod-like appearance New nuclear envelope forms around the bundle of chromosomes. Two halves separate even farther.

11 Stage 3: Cytokinesis Cytokinesis is the division of cytoplasm and organelles into each of the 2 new cells.

12 Stage 3: Cytokinesis During cytokinesis:
Cell membrane pinches in around the middle of the cell. Cell splits in two and divides the cytoplasm. Each daughter cell has an identical set of chromosomes and about 1/2 the organelles. Cytokinesis leads back into interphase.

13 Stage 3: Cytokinesis Cytokinesis in PLANTS is different.
A cell plate forms across the middle of the cell, which gradually develops into the new cell membranes. The new cell walls form around the cell membranes.

14 DNA Structure Double helix - Twisted ladder shape
The sides of the ladder are made up of sugar molecules called deoxyribose, and alternate with a phosphate molecule. The rungs are made up of a pair of nitrogen bases. 4 nitrogen bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C).

15 DNA Replication Process
The DNA “ladder” unwinds and unzips, leaving 1 of the 2 nitrogen bases on either side of the “ladder”. Bases that are floating in the nucleus pair up with its appropriate partner. Adenine pairs with Thymine Guanine pairs with Cytosine

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