2 The Cell CycleThe regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
3 The Cell Cycle 6 Parts Interphase Prophase* Metaphase Anaphase TelophaseCytokinesis*When mitosis begins.
4 Stage 1: InterphaseDuring interphase the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into 2 cells.Cell grows - The cell grows to full size and produces structures it needs.Copies DNA -Cell makes a full copy of the DNA. This process is known as replication.DNA is found in the chromatin.
5 Stage 1: InterphasePreparing for Division - After replication has occurred, the cell copies its centrioles.Centrioles - Cylindrical structures that produce microtubules used in mitosis.
6 Stage 2: MitosisMitosis - The stage during which the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei.During mitosis, one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells.Daughter cells - The cells that are produced following cell division.
7 Stage 2: MitosisPart 1Prophase - Chromatin condenses in the nucleus to form chromosomes.Chromosomes are made of chromatin. The two chromatids that make up a chromosome is held together in the center by a centromere. (make a diagram.)The centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus.The nuclear envelope breaks down.
8 Stage 2: Mitosis Part2 Metaphase - Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at its centromere.The spindle fibers are connected to the centrioles.
9 Stage 2: Mitosis Part 3 Anaphase - The centromeres split, and the chromatids separate.Each chromatid becomes a new chromosome.New chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell.Cell begins to stretch out as the opposite ends are pushed apart.
10 Stage 2: Mitosis Part 4 Telophase - Chromosomes lose their rod-like appearanceNew nuclear envelope forms around the bundle of chromosomes.Two halves separate even farther.
11 Stage 3: CytokinesisCytokinesis is the division of cytoplasm and organelles into each of the 2 new cells.
12 Stage 3: Cytokinesis During cytokinesis: Cell membrane pinches in around the middle of the cell.Cell splits in two and divides the cytoplasm.Each daughter cell has an identical set of chromosomes and about 1/2 the organelles.Cytokinesis leads back into interphase.
13 Stage 3: Cytokinesis Cytokinesis in PLANTS is different. A cell plate forms across the middle of the cell, which gradually develops into the new cell membranes.The new cell walls form around the cell membranes.
14 DNA Structure Double helix - Twisted ladder shape The sides of the ladder are made up of sugar molecules called deoxyribose, and alternate with a phosphate molecule.The rungs are made up of a pair of nitrogen bases.4 nitrogen bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C).
15 DNA Replication Process The DNA “ladder” unwinds and unzips, leaving 1 of the 2 nitrogen bases on either side of the “ladder”.Bases that are floating in the nucleus pair up with its appropriate partner.Adenine pairs with ThymineGuanine pairs with Cytosine