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Notes 30.2 Stellar Evolution

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1 Notes 30.2 Stellar Evolution
Std 2d: Know stars differ in their life cycles and that may be used to collect data that reveal those differences Std 2f: Know the evidence indicating that the color, brightness, and evolution of a star are determined by a balance between gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion Objective 1: Describe how a protostar becomes a star Objective 2: Describe the evolution of a star after its main-sequence stage

2 Stellar Evolution A typical star exists for billions of years. Astronomers study stars at different stages

3 Classifying Stars The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (H-R Diagram) - a graph that plots the surface temperature of stars against their luminosity X- axis - the temperature of the star Y-axis - the luminosity of the star Most stars are known as main-sequence stars (ex. Sun)

4 Star Formation Nebula - a cloud of gas and dust (star begins)
An outside force (ex. Explosion of a nearby star) causes the cloud to compress The gravitational force causes particles to be pulled toward the area of increasing mass Dense matter begin to build up with in the cloud

5 Protostars Gravity can cause these dense regions to spin greatly
Protostar - flatten disk that has a central concentration of matter Continues to contract and increase in temperature for several million years

6 The Birth of Star Temperature continues to increase in a protostar to about 10,000,000 ⁰C. Nuclear fusion begins Nuclear fusion releases enormous amounts of energy.

7 Objective 1: Describe how a protostar becomes a star
What is the beginning of a protostar? Nebula What causes the nebula to contract? An outside force (star exploding) What is a flatten disk that has an area of concentrated matter? Protostar What releases an enormous amount of energy? Nuclear fusion

8 Draw this diagram

9 The Main-Sequence Stage
2nd stage (longest in the life of a star) A star similar to the sun’s mass stays main-sequence for about 10 billion years More massive stars = 10 million years because they fuse hydrogen rapidly Scientists estimate that the sun is 5 billion years old.

10 Leaving the Main-Sequence
3rd stage when almost all of the hydrogen atoms in the core have fused into helium atoms The helium core becomes hotter, it transfers energy into a thin shell of hydrogen surrounding the core The on-going fusion of hydrogen radiates energy outward, which causes the star to expand greatly

11 Giant Stars A star grows cooler as it expands. They begin to glow with a reddish color. Giants – a very large and bright star whose hot core has used most of its hydrogen 10x or more larger than the sun Stars like the sun will become giants

12 Supergiants 3rd stage -Stars that are much larger than the sun become supergiants Supergiants are often at least 100x larger than the sun

13 The Final Stages of a Sunlike Star
Fusion in the core will stop after the helium atoms have fused into carbon and oxygen

14 Planetary Nebula As the stars outer gases drift away, the remaining core heats these expanding gases Planetary nebula - A cloud of gas forms around a dying star

15 White Dwarfs Final stage - A small, hot, dim star that is the leftover of an old star is a White Dwarf Gravity causes the remaining matter in the star to collapse Hot but dim About the size of Earth When a white dwarf no longer gives off light, it becomes a black dwarf (do not exist yet)

16 Novas and Supernovas Nova – A star that suddenly becomes brighter
If a white dwarf revolves around a red giant, its gravity may capture gases from the red giant Nova - Pressure will begin to build on the surface of the white dwarf and may cause large explosions A white dwarf may become a nova several times

17 Supernovas - a star that has such a tremendous explosion that blows itself apart
If a white dwarf accumulates too much mass it may become a supernova

18 The Final Stages of Massive Stars
Massive Stars become Supernovas as part of their life cycle The collapse produces high pressure and temperature causes nuclear fusion to begin again Fusion continues until the core is almost all iron The core begins to collapse by gravity Energy released as the core collapses explodes outward w/tremendous force

19 Neutron Stars Massive stars do not become white dwarfs
After a Supernova explosion the core contracts and becomes a Neutron star Neutron star – a star that has collapsed under gravity to the point that the electrons and protons have smashed together forming neutrons

20 Pulsars Neutron stars emit a beam of radio waves that can be detected from Earth. Pulsar – a rapidly spinning neutron star that emits pulses of radio and optical energy

21 Black Holes The force of the contraction crushes the dense core of the star and leaves a Black Hole Black hole - an object so massive and dense that light cannot escape its gravity Gravity is so great that light cannot escape They are difficult to locate

22 Objective 2: Describe the evolution of a star after its main-sequence stage
What are objects that are so massive and dense light cannot escape? Black holes What are spinning stars that emit radio waves? Pulsars What do Red Supergiants become? Supernovas What type of star do pulsars form from? Neutron stars

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