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Solutions, Acids, Bases & pH

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions, Acids, Bases & pH"— Presentation transcript:

1 Solutions, Acids, Bases & pH

2 Solute –substance whose particles are dissolved in a solution
ie. salt, sugar Solvent – the substance in which the solute dissolves ie. water “universal solvent”


4 Dispersion of Sugar in Water

5 Properties of Liquid Substances
Conductivity – ability to conduct electricity Freezing point – decreases Boiling point – increases Heat of solution – energy is absorbed or released during the formation of a solution Energy released = exothermic Energy absorbed = endothermic

6 Factors Affecting Dissolving Rate
Surface area – ↑ surface area = ↑ rate Stirring – moves dissolved particles away from the solid Temperature – ↑ temperature = ↑ rate

7 Factors Affecting Dissolving Rate

8 One of the most important aspects of a living system is the degree of acidity or alkalinity

9 Ionization of water -breaking apart water molecules into ions of opposite charge
HOH + HOH  H3O+ + OH- (water) (water) (hydronium) (hydroxide)

10 Acid – ionic compound that produces hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water
Stronger acid = more hydronium ions Number of hydronium ions in solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions

11 Acids Characteristics of Acids Examples of Acids Tastes sour
Reacts strongly with metals Conducts electricity in water Turns blue litmus paper red Generally clear solutions Proton donors (give H+) Examples of Acids Vinegar H2SO4 Citrus fruits HNO3 Stomach acid (HCl)

12 Acetic acid CH3COOH Vinegar
Carbonic acid H2CO3 Carbonated beverages Hydrochloric acid HCI Digestive juices in stomach Nitric acid HNO3 Fertilizer production Phosphoric acid H3PO4 Fertilizer production Sulfuric acid H2SO4 Car batteries

13 Add Base to Water OH- Na+ Base – ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water NaOH  Na+ + OH- Stronger base = more hydroxide ions Number of hydroxide ions in solution is greater than the number of hydronium ions

14 Bases Characteristics of Bases Examples of Bases Tastes bitter
Reacts strongly with metals Conducts electricity in water Turns red litmus paper blue Generally slippery feel Proton acceptors (take H+) Examples of Bases Lye (NaOH) Ca(OH)2 Ammonia (NH3) KOH

15 Aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 Deodorant, antacid
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 Concrete, plaster Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 Antacid, laxative Sodium hydroxide NaOH Drain cleaner, soap production

16 Neutralization Reaction between an Acid & Base that forms salt & water
HCl NaOH  HOH + NaCl (Hydrochloric Acid) + (Sodium Hydroxide)  (Water) (Salt)

17 Sodium chloride NaCl Food flavoring, preservative
Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 Used to make glass Potassium chloride KCl Used as a salt substitute to reduce dietary intake of sodium Potassium iodide Kl Added to table salt to prevent iodine deficiency Magnesium chloride MgCl2 De-icer for roads Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Chalk, marble floors, and tables Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 Fertilizer, cold packs

18 Remember!! During a chemical reaction: Bonds are broken
Elements are rearranged New compounds are formed Balanced Equation - # of atoms of each element are equal on both sides of a chemical equation Reactants are shown on the left Products are shown on the right HCl + NaOH  H2O + NaCl Reactants Products

19 pH Scale Measure of hydronium (H3O+) ion concentration
pH affects the physical & chemical properties of a substance

20 Acid – pH = 0-6 Neutral – pH = 7 Base – pH = 8-14

21 A change of 1 pH unit changes the H3O+ concentration by a factor of 10
A change of one pH unit changes the H+ concentration by a factor of 10. A change of 1 pH unit changes the H3O+ concentration by a factor of 10 ie. pH 1 has 10x more hydronium ions than pH 2; 100x more than pH 3, etc.

22 Why do we need to know pH?

23 Indicator Changes color as the pH changes
Indicates the pH of the solution

24 Works Cited Physical Science Concepts In Action Textbook

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