Presentation on theme: "Types of Information System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of Information System Information SystemsLachlan M. MacKinnon
2 4 Levels of Information System Operational-level SystemsSupport operational managers by keeping track of the elementary activities and transactions of the organisation. The principle purpose of systems at this level is to answer routine questions and track the flow of transactions through the organisation. Covers things such as sales, receipts, cash deposits, payroll, credit decisions, flow of materials.
3 Knowledge-level Systems Support knowledge and data workers in an organisation. The purpose of these systems is to help the organisation discover, organise and integrate new and existing knowledge intothe business, and to help control the flow of paperwork. These systems, specially in the form of collaboration tools, workstations, and office systems, are the fastest growing applications in business today.
4 Management-level Systems Designed to serve the the monitoring, controlling, decision-making, and administrative activities of middle managers. These typically provide periodic reports rather than instant information on operations. Some of these systems support non-routine decision-making, focusing on less-structured decisions for which information requirements are not always clear. This will often require information from outwith the organisation, as well as from normal operational-level data.
5 Strategic-level Systems Help senior management tackle and address strategic issues and long-term trends, both within the organisation and in the external environment. Principal concern is matching organisational capability to changes, and opportunities, occurring in the medium to long term (i.e years) in the external environment.
6 Typically, an organisation might have operational, knowledge, management and strategic level systems for each functional area within the organisation. This would be based on the management model adopted by the organisation, so, while the most commonly-adopted systems structure would simply follow the standard functional model, structures reflecting bureaucratic, product and matrix models are also possible.As identified before, enterprise level information systems attempt to encompass the whole organisation in one system.
9 Operational-level Systems Transaction-Processing Systems (TPS)Basic business systemsPerform daily routine transactions necessary for business functionsAt the operational level, tasks, resources and goals are predefines and highly structuredGenerally, five functional categories are identified, as shown in the diagram.
11 Knowledge-level Systems Office Automation Systems (OAS)Targeted at meeting the knowledge needs of data workers within the organisationData workers tend to process rather than create information. Primarily involved in information use, manipulation or dissemination.Typical OAS handle and manage documents, scheduling and communication.
12 Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) Targeted at meting the knowledge needs of knowledge workers within the organisationIn general, knowledge workers hold degree-level professional qualifications (e.g. engineers, scientists, lawyers), their jobs consist primarily in crating new information and knowledgeKWS, such as scientific or engineering design workstations, promote the creation of new knowledge, and its dissemination and integration throughout the organisation.
13 Management-level Systems Management Information Systems (MIS)MIS provide managers with reports and, in some cases, on-line access to the organisations current performance and historical recordsTypically these systems focus entirely on internal events, providing the information for short-term planning and decision making.MIS summarise and report on the basic operations of the organisation, dependent on the underlying TPS for their data.
15 Decision-Support Systems (DSS) As MIS, these serve the needs of the management level of the organisationFocus on helping managers make decisions that are semi-structured, unique, or rapidly changing, and not easily specified in advanceUse internal information from TPS and MIS, but also information from external sourcesGreater analytical power than other systems, incorporate modelling tools, aggregation and analysis tools, and support what-if scenariosMust provide user-friendly, interactivetools
17 Strategic-level Systems Executive Support/Information Systems (ESS/EIS)Serve the strategic level of the organisationESS/EIS address unstructured decisions and create a generalised computing and communications environment, rather than providing any fixed application or specific capability. Such systems are not designed to solve specific problems, but to tackle a changing array of problems
18 ESS/EIS are designed to incorporate data about external events, such as new tax laws or competitors, and also draw summarised information from internal MIS and DSSThese systems filter, compress, and track critical data, emphasising the reduction of time and effort required to obtain information useful to executive managementESS/EIS employ advanced graphics software to provide highly visual and easy-to-use representations of complex information and current trends, but they tend not to provide analytical models