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Introduction to Tourism

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Tourism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Tourism

2 Tourism is a major global Industry.
Its contribution to economic development has encouraged countries to pursue this highly dynamic sector. Its growth has been fueled by several factors such as development in transportation and communication, opening up of barriers and growing demand of people to travel.

3 According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the number of international tourists has greatly increased from a mere 25 million in 1950 to 842 million in It is not surprisingly then for tourism to be described as one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the past century. However, tourism remains to be a complex phenomenon that has been perceived at different perspectives by different sectors of society.

4 UN WTO From 25 M in 1950 to 806 M in 2005, averaging 6.5% annual growth rate.

5 What is Tourism? Tourism has no universal definition until 1993 when the WTO came up with the Recommendations on Tourism Statistics. These recommendations included a definition of tourism, the forms of tourism, and tourists among other tourism statistics that could be used for statistical comparisons among countries. It should be noted, however, that these were merely suggestions and the WTO could not impose on every country to adopt these definitions.

6 WTO defines tourism as:
What is Tourism? WTO defines tourism as: “comprised of activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.”

7 What is Tourism? Travel is one word that is used interchangeably with tourism. However, not all travels are tourism. Thus, there is a need to differentiate travelers from visitors. Travelers are people on a trip between two or more places, while visitors are people who engage in tourism.

8 What is Tourism? Visitors are different from other travelers because of the following three criteria: The trip should be a place other than that of the usual environment. The stay in the place visited should not last more than 12 consecutive months. The main purpose of the trip should be other than the exercise of activity remunerated from within the place visited.

9 Relationship Between Visitors and other Travelers
Holidays Culture Active sports Relatives and friends Others Included in tourism statistics Not included in tourism statistics PLEASURE VISITORS TOURISTS(1) EXCURSIONISTS (3) Meetings Missions Convention Professional Purpose of visit Studies Health Transit Others OTHER TOURIST MOTIVES Non-nationals (Foreigners Nationals, residents abroad Cruise passengers (4) Day Visitor (5) Crews (6) Crew members (non-residents) (2) Members of the armed forces (7) Represent-atives of consulates(7) Diplomats (7) Temporary immigrants Border workers Nomads Transit passengers Refugees Permanent Visitors Source: World Tourism Organization concepts, definitions, and classifications for tourism statistics

10 Visitors who spend at least one night in the country visited.
Foreign air or ship crews docked or in layover or who use the accommodation establishments of the country visited. Visitors who do not spend the night in the country visited, although they may visit the country during one day or more and return to their ship or train to sleep. Normally included in the excursionists. Separate classification of these visitors is nevertheless recommended. Visitors who come and leave on the same day. Crews who are not residents of the country visited and who stay in the country for the day. When they travel from their country of origin to the duty station or vice versa (including household servants and dependents accompanying or joining them) Those who do not leave the transit area of the airport or the port. They should be included in the visitors statistics. In certain countries, transit may involve a stay of one day or more.

11 Types of Visitors: Overnight visitor (tourist) Same-day visitor

12 Types of Visitors: Overnight visitor (tourist) –refers to a visitor who spends his/her night away from home. Same-day visitor – refers to a visitor who does not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited.

13 Visitors are further classified into:
International visitor Domestic visitor

14 Visitors are further classified into:
International visitor Refers to any person who travels to a country outside his/her usual environment and other than the one in which he/she his/her usual residence, but for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

15 Visitors are further classified into:
Domestic visitor Refers to any person who travels to a place other than of his/her usual environment but still within his/her country of residence for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

16 The Tourism System The tourism system is a group of interrelated, interdependent and interacting elements that together form a single structure.

17 The Geographical Elements of Tourism
Tourist Destination Regions Traveler Generating Regions transit routes Source; Weaver and Opperman (2000)

18 The Tourism System transit routes Tourist Destination Traveler Regions
Departing Travelers Tourist Destination Regions Traveler Generating Regions Tourists Arriving And Staying routes Departing Travelers The broader environments: physical, cultural, social, Economic, political, technological

19 Elements of Tourism Tourist
The tourist is the actor in this system. Tourism is a very human experience enjoyed, anticipated and remembered by many as one of the most important times of their lives.

20 Elements of Tourism Traveler-generating region
It is the generating market for tourism It provides the “push” to stimulate and motivate travel. This is where the tourist searches for information, books a trip and departs.

21 Elements of Tourism Tourist destination region
It is the “sharp end” of tourism. This is where the full impact of tourism is felt, and planning and management strategies are implemented. It is considered the “pull” to visit destinations, energizing the whole tourism system and creating demand for travel in the generating region.

22 Elements of Tourism Transit route region
Represents the short period of travel to reach the destination and also the intermediate places visited en route.

23 Elements of Tourism Tourism Industry
Described as the range of business and organization involved in delivering the tourism product.

24 Forms of Tourism Tourism has three forms in relation to a given area (like region, country, group of countries), namely: Domestic Tourism Inbound Tourism Outbound Tourism

25 Forms of Tourism Domestic Tourism Tourism involving residents of the given area travelling (as visitors) only within that area

26 Forms of Tourism Inbound Tourism Tourism involving non-residents travelling (as visitors) in the given area.

27 Forms of Tourism Outbound Tourism Tourism involving residents travelling (as visitors) in an area other than the given area.

28 In the case where the area is a country, there are three more forms of tourism:
Internal Tourism National Tourism International Tourism

29 Internal Tourism Comprises domestic and inbound tourism

30 National Tourism Comprises domestic and inbound and outbound tourism

31 International Tourism Consists of inbound and outbound tourism

32 Destination of Visitors
Country A Other Countries National tourism of Country A Origin of Visitors Country A Domestic tourism Outbound tourism Inbound tourism Other Countries Share of Country A in international tourism departures (outbound) and Arrivals (inbound) Internal tourism of Country B

33 Benefits of Tourism - Economic
Provides employment opportunities Generates foreign exchange Increases Incomes Increases GNP Can be built on existing infrastructure Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry Can be developed with local products and resources Diversifies the economy Tends to be compatible with other economic activities Spreads development High multiplier impact Increases governmental revenues

34 Benefits of Tourism - Social
Broadens educational and cultural horizons Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of living Justifies environmental protection and improvement Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population

35 Benefits of Tourism - Cultural
Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritage Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination Promotes a global community Promotes international understanding and peace

36 Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic
Develops excess demand Results in high leakage Creates difficulties of seasonality Causes inflation Can result in unbalanced economic development Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes

37 Disadvantages of Tourism - Social
Creates social problems Degrades the natural physical environment and creates pollution Degrades the cultural environment Threatens family structure Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts Creates misunderstanding Creates conflicts in the host society Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and transportation problems © John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2009

38 The End

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